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    People In History Sample Answers for 2016 jenny_1000

    Here are some sample people in history for people

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      jenny_1000

      A monk in an early Christian monastery in Ireland

      My name is Brother John and I live in a monastery called Clonmacnoise near the River Shannon. I joined the monastery when I was 16 years old and I was called a novice. The man in charge of the monastery is called the abbot. After five years I took vows of poverty, obedience and chastity. I was given a brown habit to wear.

      The largest building in our monastery is the church. All the monks live in small beehive cells made of stone. We have also built a very tall round tower in our monastery. We are afraid of being attacked by the Vikings. If an attack takes place we all go into the tower for protection and bring all our precious goods with us. The most precious goods we have in our monastery are the silver and gold chalices and crosses, which were made by monks with special craft skills.

      I rise before dawn every day of the year and spend the first part of the day praying. My main job in the monastery is that of a scribe. I spend many hours decorating manuscripts, which contain stories from the Bible. I make all my own coloured inks and paints and the material on which I write is called vellum. I use special pens made from the feathers of a goose called a quill.

      The monks in the monastery have many different jobs. Some work on the land while others do all the cooking. One monk carves special high crosses and another uses silver and gold to make beautiful chalices.

      Some of the monks have left the monastery to go overseas to Europe to spread the Christian religion. These monks are called missionaries and they have become followers of a monk called Columbanus. I expect to stay in this monastery until I die and I don’t think I’ll ever see any of my family again.

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      jenny_1000

      The lord of a medieval castle

      My name is Lord Hugh de Lacy and I live in a castle in Co. Waterford. I own a large amount of land and I have lots of knights and foot soldiers to protect me. My castle is built of local limestone and granite and the main building is called the keep. The walls are very thick and the building is five storeys high.

      There is an outer wall surrounded by a moat and a drawbridge is used for security. There is also a special spiked gate called a portcullis. My greatest fear is that my castle could come under attack from enemies using battering rams and siege towers and that we may be under siege for several weeks. We have our own well inside the courtyard and we keep supplies of extra food in the basement of the main building.

      The main living area for my family and I is on the top floor. We also have our own private chapel. To get to our living area we have to use the very narrow spiral stairs. There are very narrow windows and it is very cold. The solar is the warmest room because it faces south. In the floor below us is the great hall and all the really important banquets are held there. It has two huge open fires and large tapestries hang on the walls. Soldiers also sometimes sleep there.

      My main pastimes are holding great banquets in which entertainment is provided by jesters and musicians. I also like to go hunting in the winter and in the summer we organise jousting competitions between knights on horseback. Occasionally, I have to act as a judge and the court is held in the great hall. We have dungeons in the basement of the keep and sometimes prisoners are held there. Very serious crimes are punished by death.

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      jenny_1000

      A named religious reformer at the time of the Reformation (Martin Luther)

      During the time of the Reformation a very important religious reformer was Martin Luther. Martin was born in Germany and became an Augustinian monk. He had an important job as a university professor in the city of Wittenberg. He was very concerned about saving his soul and getting into heaven. He studied the Bible closely and eventually he became convinced that only faith in God would save him.

      In the year 1517 a monk called John Tetzel came to Wittenberg selling indulgences for the Pope and some of money was to be used to build St. Peter’s in Rome. Many people were frightened into buying indulgences and this made Luther very angry. He decided to do something in protest and wrote 95 theses, which he nailed to the main church door. This was later translated into German and printed and his ideas spread rapidly.

      The Pope heard of Luther’s protest and he sent a letter called a Papal Bull ordering Luther to stop but Luther burned the Pope’s letter in public. The Pope could have excommunicated Luther for this. Next the Emperor of Germany got involved and a special meeting took place called the Diet of Worms. Luther spoke at the meeting and absolutely refused to change his views. Then Emperor Charles V condemned Luther as a heretic and this meant that his life was in danger. At this stage Prince Frederick of Saxony came to the aid of Luther and he hid Luther in his castle for nearly a year. During his time in the castle he translated the old Latin Bible into German and he also began to form a new Christian religion.

      In this new Lutheran church the Bible became central; there were only two sacraments – baptism and communion; all Church services were in the language of the region; there were ministers instead of priests and they were allowed to marry. The new Lutheran religion spread rapidly all over Germany and many princes became Lutheran. They became known as Protestants and very soon deep divisions developed between the Catholic Church and the Lutheran Church. This led to wars of religion that lasted for over nine years.

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      jenny_1000

      An archaeologist at work

      The work that an archaeologist does is very important for historians. An archaeologist is the person who excavates objects of interest from underground and sometimes from underwater. The place where the archaeologist works is called a site. Sometimes sites are found by accident such as during the construction of new motorways. Also sites are found by examining aerial photographs or from listening to old legends. When the archaeologist arrives at the site the excavation has to be planned very carefully. A survey of the site is made and all the topsoil is removed. The area is then divided into grids and a site map is produced.

      When the archaeologist begins his or her work they use tools such as brushes, shovels, trowels and sieves. The archaeologist has to work very carefully and has to be very patient. Objects that are found are called artefacts and these might include pottery, weapons or jewellery. Everything is photographed and each artefact is carefully labelled and then sent to a laboratory. The exact age of artefacts can be determined by a scientific method called carbon-14 dating. Wooden artefacts can be dated using a special computer that has records of tree rings and this method is called dendrochronology. When archaeologists find human bones, these can also be analysed to determine age, cause of death and the health of that person when he or she was living. Scientists were able to do this for the hundreds of skeletons found during the building of the Ballyshannon by-pass in 2006 in County Donegal.

      Many artefacts finally end up in museums where members of the public can go to view them. A huge amount of information from archeological research is also used to make TV documentaries and for books and magazines. Today more and more of the information is available on the internet. Historians use the information given to them by archaeologists in order to create a much clearer picture of what life was like in pre-historic times.

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      jenny_1000

      A leader in a revolution (America, France or Ireland) during the period, 1771-1805. (George Washington)

      George Washington was born in Virginia and his family were wealthy farmers who grew tobacco and owned slaves. He began his career as a soldier in the Colonial army where he was trained by the English and became an officer. He fought wars against the Indians and the French, and went on to become Commander of the Virginia troops. After he left the army and returned to his farm, he began to resent England and was elected to the Virginia Assembly. He really resented the Stamp Act and was angry about the Boston Massacre in which British troops opened fire on protesters. Later he became a member of the Continental Congress, which held meetings in Philadelphia, and all 13 colonies sent representatives.

      In 1775 the Continental army was formed and Washington was made Commander. In 1776 the Declaration of Independence was issued and this resulted in war between the Colonial army and the British troops who were nicknamed the Redcoats. The Colonial army knew the countryside well but many were only part-time soldiers. The British had a much better equipped army but they had to travel long distances.

      All did not go well for Washington at first. There were early victories for the British and important cities such as New York and Philadelphia were captured. Also the Colonial army was forced to spend a long winter in Valley Forge and many soldiers died and morale was very low. However, in 1778 French troops, arms and navy arrived to provide help for the Americans because French leaders admired Washington. As a result of this, a major defeat for the British took place at the Battle of Yorktown and the British were forced to surrender. Peace talks took place in Paris and a republic was declared in America. A new American constitution was drawn up and a Senate and Congress were formed. Washington was elected the first President and he served two terms for eight years. He died in the last days of 1799.

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      jenny_1000

      A leader in the struggle for Irish independence, 1900-1912 (Michael Collins)

      Michael Collins is a good example of an Irish leader in the struggle for Irish independence. He was born in Cork and he emigrated to London where he worked in a post office and in a bank. He also secretly joined the Irish Volunteers and returned to Ireland in 1916 to take part in the Rising where he fought in the GPO. After the defeat, he was arrested and sent to a prison camp in England where he became a leader. When he returned to Ireland, he began to reorganise the Irish Volunteers and he became a member of the Sinn Féin party, which was led by Éamon de Valera.

      In 1919, Collins was elected to the First Dáil but it was declared illegal by the British government. The members of the cabinet were forced to meet in secret locations all around Dublin. Michael Collins and Cathal Brugha also set up the IRA and they began to attack RIC barracks all over the country. Michael Collins came up with a new way of fighting the British forces, which was the use of guerrilla warfare. A group of IRA men, who were called a Flying Column, carried out attacks on the new army recruits sent over from England, called the Black and Tans. Very often they retaliated by burning down whole towns and by arresting large numbers of people. The whole city centre of Cork was burnt down after an ambush carried out by the IRA at Kilmichael, Co. Cork.

      Michael Collins spent most of his time in Dublin and he organised a special squad of twelve IRA hit men who carried out attacks on detectives based in Dublin Castle. He also set up a network of spies who passed on information to him about what the British planned to do in Ireland. One of the worst days of the whole War of Independence was known as Bloody Sunday in November 1920. In early 1921, both the leaders of the IRA and the British government decided to try to put an end to the war and a truce was called. Michael Collins and Arthur Griffith spent a few weeks negotiating with the British government in London and a Treaty was signed. When they returned to Ireland, a huge split occurred in the country as many people supported the treaty but a large number, led by de Valera, were against it. Collins defended the agreement and won a Dáil vote in favour of the Treaty. A few months later a very bloody civil war broke out in Ireland between those who supported the Treaty and those opposed to it. Michael Collins was shot dead during the Irish Civil War in his native area of west Cork in 1922.

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      jenny_1000

      A person living in Ancient Rome

      My name is Claudia and I live in the city of Rome, which is the main city of our great empire. Our ruler is called an emperor and the Roman Empire stretches all the way to the border with Scotland. My father is a general in our great Roman army and he is in charge of very well trained professional soldiers. They use weapons such as pila, swords and shields.

      My father is well paid so we live in a beautiful domus near the centre of Rome. It has a central room called the atrium and there is a beautiful enclosed garden – the peristylium. All the walls are painted with beautiful murals and there are mosaics on the floors. My father is the head of our family and I attend school each day. We begin very early and finish at noon. The main subjects are maths, writing and reading. I wear a tunic every day and wealthy men such as my father wear a toga in public, while my mother wears a stola. Our main meal of the day takes place in the evening and is called the cena. Some people overeat and get sick into a vomitorium. My family own slaves and they do all the work in our house such as preparing and serving the food. Some slaves also work as builders, street sweepers and helping the army.

      The centre of our city is called the Forum and this is a very busy market place. There are also some very important buildings located here such as the Courts, Temples, and Senate house. It is a very good place to meet people and to shop. For entertainment there are many choices in Rome. We can go to the Great Chariot Races held at the Circus Maximus. The public baths are a really good place to meet people. Then there are the Games at the Colosseum, which are usually exciting gladiator contests. Religion is a very important part of our lives and we have statues of our important Gods in our homes. I pray to the God of war called Mars and I ask him to protect all our soldiers fighting for the Roman Empire.

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      jenny_1000

      A person living in ancient (pre-Christian) Ireland

      My name is Fionn and I am a farmer in Celtic Ireland. I live in a place called a rath. My home is built of wattle and daub walls and it has a thatch roof. Other people also live beside me and we have a big wooden fence around our group of houses. Some other people in our area who are called nobles live in crannogs, which are houses built on little islands in the middle of lakes.

      Most of us are farmers and we keep a close guard on our great herds of cattle, which are very important to us. Some great battles have even taken place because of cattle. We keep them inside the great fence at night for safety. We grow lots of crops such as wheat, barley and oats and we make meal by grinding the wheat in a quern. We eat lots of porridge as well as cheese and meat. We make ale from the barley and sometimes a drink called mead from honey. We sometimes use slaves that we captured in battle to help us in our farming. We make all our own clothing from wool and linen, which we get from the flax that we grow. We collect many berries and mosses to use for different colours for the tunics and cloaks that everyone wears.

      The area in which we live is called a tuath and we have a king who is the most important person. He owns a large number of cattle. There are also people called the Aos Dána who are very important. One of these is the druid who is in charge of all our religious feasts. We have four great religious feast days in the year. They are all very important to farmers. One of these is the feast of Lughnasa when we worship the god called Lug so that we can have a very good harvest. We cook large pieces of meat on these feast days. We cook in a place called a fulacht fia, which is a special hole in the ground lined with oak and filled with water. We then use lots of hot stones to cook the meat, which is wrapped in straw. When I die I believe that I shall go to a place called Tír na nÓg where I shall be forever young.

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      jenny_1000

      A factory owner during the Industrial Revolution in Britain c. 1850

      My name is Robert Smith and I own a large textile factory in the city of Bolton in Lancashire. My very first factory was in the countryside because I needed to use waterpower from the nearby river. My new factory uses steam power so I need lots of coal as well as a supply of water. Many people have moved into the city from the countryside in search of work because of all the changes as a result of the Enclosure Acts passed by our government.

      Over five hundred workers are employed in the factory and they are mostly women and children. There are also a few men employed as overseers and engineers. They look after the huge machines that produce large amounts of cotton cloth every day. I import the raw cotton from India, which is a part of our British Empire and the cloth is then exported all over the Empire and that is how I am able to make a profit.

      Over the past 20 years the London Parliament has passed many new laws called the Factory Acts and now all my women workers can only work 10 hours per day and we are not allowed to employ any children under the age of 9 years. Most of my workers live in red brick terraced housing that I have built close to their place of work because I want to ensure that they get here in time for the 6am start of the work day. They pay rent to me. A few years ago there were many problems with the living conditions of the workers. Many of them complained of diseases such as cholera, typhus and TB. However, many improvements have taken place. Health boards were created all over the big towns and cities to make sure that the streets were cleaned and to ensure that water was piped into homes and that sewers were built. There have also been developments in medicine, which have also improved the lives of my workers.

      Because I am a factory owner I don’t have to live in the city but in a large house in the country. I send my family to public school at Eton. I am not a supporter of the workers getting too much education as this could lead to them getting ideas that may cause trouble for the factory owners such as me.

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      jenny_1000

      A German soldier who took part in Operation Barbarossa (the invasion of Russia, June 1941)

      I am a German soldier who took part in Operation Barbarossa. Our leader, Hitler ordered the attack to begin in the early summer of 1941. Hitler hated communism and he wanted to destroy the USSR, which was a communist country ruled by Stalin. He also wanted USSR land for German people and to get their oil. The attack began by using ‘Blitzkrieg’ tactics and over three million German soldiers were ordered to attack three main targets. These were the three cities of Leningrad, Moscow and Stalingrad. Hitler believed that the Soviet army would be no match for the Germans and the USSR would surrender in a few weeks.

      As we advanced into the USSR the Soviet troops destroyed all the roads and bridges as they retreated and this slowed us down. They called this their ‘scorched earth’ policy and their soldiers were called the Red Army. The USSR also decided to dismantle all their factories and move them beyond the reach of our German army. By the autumn we still did not manage to defeat the USSR and then the winter cold and snow arrived. Thousands of our soldiers died because of the weather conditions and even our tanks and trucks broke down because the fuel froze. We never managed to capture either Moscow or Leningrad. Our soldiers surrounded Leningrad and tried to force them to surrender and a huge number of the population died because of starvation. The siege of Leningrad lasted for over 900 days and still the Russians refused to surrender.

      I was part of the attack on the city of Stalingrad. We advanced into the city and our commander was Von Paulus. We had to endure fierce fighting from street to street and we suffered massive casualties. After a few weeks we were forced to surrender. I was taken as a prisoner of war by the Soviet army and we were treated very badly. When we lost the Battle of Stalingrad this was the first major defeat of the war for our German army and after that everything began to go wrong for Hitler. Very soon the Red Army began to drive the Germans from their country and eventually they got as far as the city of Berlin. That was the end of the war for Germany.

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      jenny_1000

      A named political leader in the Republic of Ireland during the period 1960-1985 (Seán Lemass)

      Seán Lemass was a very important Irish political leader in the 1960s. Lemass was born in Dublin and took part in the 1916 Rising and the War of Independence. He was one of the founding members of Fianna Fáil in 1926. He served as Minister for Industry and Commerce in the first Fianna Fáil Government of 1932.

      During the War years of 1939-1945 he served as Minister for Supplies and was in charge of rationing, price controls, etc. In the 1960s he got the important position of Taoiseach and leader of Fianna Fáil upon the retirement of de Valera. His primary goal was to modernise Ireland and create jobs through massive foreign investment. He was in favour of the IDA giving grants to foreign companies to set up in Ireland. A key person who advised Lemass on economic strategy was T.K. Whittaker who was the head of the Department of Finance and he provided lots of the ideas for economic growth, which the government supported.

      Lemass supported the idea of Irish troops serving on UN missions. He also supported the setting up of a national TV station – RTE in 1962. He was also the very first Irish leader to hold meetings with the Prime Minister of Northern Ireland as he was very interested in promoting co-operation between the North and South in terms of the economy and tourism, etc. Another really important achievement of Lemass was that his government introduced free secondary education in Ireland for the first time in the mid 1960s. Lemass decided to retire from political life in 1966.

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      jenny_1000

      A named leader on a voyage during the Age of Exploration (Christopher Columbus)

      A leader during the Age of Exploration was Christopher Columbus. Even though he sailed for Spain, he was born in Italy in the port city of Genoa. As a young man he dreamed of being a sailor and he was very influenced by a book on the travels of Marco Polo to China.

      Columbus was convinced the world was round and he decided that he would travel west to reach China and the Indies. First, he had to look for sponsorship and he eventually got the support of Queen Isabella of Spain. She helped to fund three ships and Columbus set sail from the port of Palos in Spain in August 1492. Columbus was on board the flagship, which was called the Santa Maria. The other ships were the Nina and the Pinta. The first stop made on the voyage was the Canary Islands in order to make repairs and bring on fresh food supplies.

      In September 1492 the three ships sailed west into the Atlantic. After a few weeks of sailing some of the sailors grew nervous and Columbus promised to turn back if they did not reach land within a couple of days. Then in October 1492, the ships reached an island, which Columbus called San Salvador. He called the people who lived there ‘Indians’. Columbus spent the following weeks exploring the islands of the region. The flagship sank and the timber was used to build a fort on the island that Columbus called Hispaniola.

      In March 1493, Columbus arrived back in Spain to a hero’s welcome and brought with him some native people as well as products from his travels. Columbus made three more voyages but ended his career in shame as he was arrested for treating the native people with cruelty.

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      jenny_1000

      A news reporter describing one of the crises during the Cold War, 1945-1963 (Berlin Blockade)

      I am a news reporter and I want to tell you about a very serious Cold War crisis that took place in the city of Berlin. The crisis was known as the Berlin Blockade. It can all be traced back to the end of World War II when Germany was divided into two parts. East Germany came under the control of the USSR and was a communist state. Britain, France and the USA controlled West Germany. The city of Berlin was in the USSR zone but it was also divided into East and West. The western part of Berlin began to benefit from the effects of the Marshall Plan and a new stronger currency was also introduced in that part of the city.

      Stalin and the communists were not happy about this and in 1948 Stalin set up a blockade of all the roads and railways leading into West Berlin. His goal was to have all of the city of Berlin under USSR control and to drive the Allies out of West Berlin and he believed this could happen in six weeks.

      The USA and the other allies decided that this should not be allowed. For a period of nearly 11 months, all the supplies needed by the people in West Berlin were airlifted into the area by the USA. Huge transport planes were used and everything from medicine to fuel was flown into West Berlin. A very tense situation developed between the USA and the USSR. Eventually, Stalin was forced to call off the blockade.

      As a result of the blockade, a special military alliance has been created by the USA and their allies called NATO. The USSR also set up a military alliance of countries from Eastern Europe called the Warsaw Pact.

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      jenny_1000

      A farm labourer during the Agricultural Revolution

      My name in Stephen Jones and I live in Norfolk in England. Over the past few years a huge number of changes have taken places in farming. Before the Agricultural Revolution most people lived in small villages and grew crops in fields scattered here and there and reared farm animals on the village common land. However, there were lots of problems. We all had narrow strips of land and sometimes farm animals walked all over our crops. Also all the farm work had to be done by hand and this made the work really slow.

      However, when people began to move to the new cities to work in big factories great changes took place in the countryside. The government passed a law, which was called the Enclosure Act and this meant that farmers built fences and ditches and all their land was in one large unit. Another major change has been the introduction of a system of crop rotation, which began here in Norfolk and this means that the soil is always kept enriched and does not get worn out. Our method is that we plant a different crop in each field every year and in one year we let clover grow in the field as this is good for the soil.

      Another change was that new machines have been invented to make farming much easier but it also means that there is less need for farm labourers. One of these machines was invented by a man called Jethro Tull and it is called the seed drill, which makes it possible to grow more grain because all the seeds are properly covered by soil when planting takes place. Another machine that was invented was the mechanical reaper, which was pulled by two horses and this could do the work of a few men in just a few hours. Lastly, another big change is that new and better breeds of cattle and sheep have been brought to the countryside, which have more meat and produce more milk.

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      jenny_1000

      A historian describing the main events in the movement towards European unity, 1943-1992

      After World War II ended in 1945, politicians in Europe realised the huge need for close co-operation between the different European nations. As a result of this, the European Economic Community (EEC) was formed by the Treaty of Rome, which was signed in 1957. It was signed by the six member states of Italy, France, West Germany, Belgium, Netherlands and Luxemburg. The city of Brussels became the HQ and they created the EEC Commission as well as a Council of Ministers. Britain, Ireland and Denmark joined the European Community in 1973.

      The next development was the creation of a European Parliament where representatives of the member countries would attend and these MEPs were elected for the first time in 1979. A Court of Justice was also created and became very important. The EEC proved to be a great economic success. In the 1980s, Greece, Spain and Portugal joined.

      A very important treaty was signed at Maastricht in 1991 where it was decided to adopt a common currency called the euro and the official name of the European Union was also adopted. The Maastricht Treaty also made it possible for the citizens of EU countries to travel freely as they were all given common citizenship.

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      jenny_1000

      A supporter of an independence movement in a named African or Asian country after 1945 (India)

      I am a supporter of the independence movement in India. For nearly two hundred years up to the end of WWII, India was a huge country in Asia ruled by Britain and the representative of the British monarch in India was called the Viceroy. Many British politicians referred to India as ‘the jewel in the crown’.

      However, from the 1920s more and more people in India began to demand independence and a man called Gandhi became our leader and he had his own political party. In the 1930s the British Government was forced to give India a form of Home Rule but Gandhi and many others called for full independence. After WWII the new British Labour Government wanted to give India ‘dominion status’ just like Canada had obtained.

      However, the new Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten, realised that there were major religious divisions in the country between Hindus and Muslims and that an independent partitioned India was the only solution. Muslim leaders had been demanding a separate state called Pakistan. Lord Mountbatten was responsible for the transfer of power to an Indian Government. India was also divided into two parts and the Muslim part became independent Pakistan. India and Pakistan became independent in August 1947. However, there was a huge amount of bloodshed and violence as a result of this, which lasted for many years and millions of people died or became refugees.

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      jackkfleming

      Thanks man

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      Tsunn

      These are great ! Thanks m8

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      lilannila

      OMG! Thank you so much!!

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      lilannila

      I have my history summer test tomorrow so these are perfect

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      Mallen

      A Neolithic Farmer

      Neolithic Farmers were the first people to farm in Ireland and they came here circa 3500 BC.

      Unlike the Mesolithic people before them, they were farmers, and not hunter-gatherers.

      Instead, they grew crops and kept animals. They began to clear the forests to make room for farming. They led a more settled life and did not move from place to place like the first settlers did.

      Evidence gathered by archaeologists at Céide Fields, in Co. Mayo, suggests that they divided land into separate fields, surrounded by stone walls. These enclosures kept in their own animals as well as keeping out other, wild animals.

      The Neolithic farmers were more skilled and made better tools than the earlier settlers. They still used stone tools but they polished the stone to make it stronger.

      Stone axes were used to cut down trees to allow in some sunlight so that growth could take place.

      Forests were also cleared by a method known as ring-barking. This involved cutting a small circular section from the tree or branch, which prevented re-growth. Once the trees were removed, the land was then prepared for crops or grazing by using mattocks or wooden ploughs to turn the soil.

      Neolithic Farmers used the wood that they cut down in the forests to build rectangular houses for themselves. They used a method of weaving branches and plastering it with mud to make the walls. This is known as wattle and daub.

      The roof was made from straw or rushes. The house had one room and there was a fire in the centre so homes were generally dark and smoky as the smoke had to escape through a small hole in the roof. Food was stored in pots made from clay.

      They ate domestic animals and grew wheat, barley and oats which they used to make porridge or – with the use of quern stones – bread.

      They cooked in a fulacht fiadh which was a pit dug in the ground and then filled with water. Hot stones were placed in the water to heat it up.

      Meat was wrapped in straw and then lowered into the water and so cooked.

      They used stone scrapers to clean animal skins which were then sewn with needles made from animal bone. Therefore, the clothes worn by Neolithic Farmers were made from animal skins and wool from sheep kept by the farmers.

      The art of weaving and spinning began to develop. Dyes made from plants were used to add colour to the wool.

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      Mallen

      A Knight Living in a Medieval Castle

      My name is Gandal and I am a knight living in a stone castle, on a hill overlooking the town of Coventry. I pledge allegiance to my Lord who rules over the barony of this area. I am pledged to defend my Lord in battle and to uphold the Code of Chivalry throughout his lands. Under this Code, it is important that I protect women and children and never run from a battle.

      The castle where I live is heavily-defended by myself and other knights, archers and foot-soldiers. The castle is surrounded by a moat, with a heavy drawbridge as the only access. An iron portcullis is lowered in front of the main door in times of danger. The strong curtain walls protect the castle against catapult attack. On top of the Keep and curtain walls, there are battlements and turrets for us to defend the castle from attackers. There are also arrow slits to provide protection for the archers.

      My training as a knight began when I was seven years old. I was sent to another castle where I became a Page. At this stage I learned about manners and how to hold a sword and ride a horse. At fourteen years of age, I became Squire. At this age, I learned how to fight, ride a horse and other general combat skills. At the age of twenty-one, I became a knight at my ‘dubbing ceremony’. The night before I spent in the chapel praying. In the morning I knelt before the Lord, who lowered his sword over my right and left shoulders while I pledged allegiance to him. He then said ‘Arise, Sir Gandal’. I had become a knight.

      Under the feudal system, I protect the Lord, his family and his subjects. The knights are the most important allies of the Lord as they direct all soldiers and archers in battle. When I go to battle, I ride a horse and wear heavy armour. Underneath the plate-armour, I wear heavy chain-mail, which stops light sword hits and daggers. I carry a lance and a shield to protect myself while in battle.

      When I am not in battle, I attend jousts and tourneys to perfect my fighting skill. In tourneys, we conduct ‘mock battles’ and in jousts, knights compete against each other on horseback. The Lord always attends these and knights fight each other for his favour and honour. When I am not fighting in these tournaments, I wear silks.

      I live in the Keep of the Castle with the other knights. It is important for us to be close to the Lord and his family for their protection. In the Bailey, the courtyard of the castle, we keep our horses in stables. We have our meals with the Lord in the Great Hall everyday at 12pm and 4pm. We drink ale and wine. When I have free time, I like to play chess or go hawking.

      I pledge my allegiance and loyalty to my Lord, the King and to God

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      Mallen

      A lord or lady living in a medieval castle

      My name is Lord John Fitzgerald and I live in a castle in Co. Kilkenny. My grandfather originally came from Normandy in France. I own a large amount of land and I have lots of knights and foot soldiers to protect me. My castle is built of local limestone and granite and the main building is called the keep. The walls are very thick and the building is five storeys high.

      There is an outer wall surrounded by a moat and a drawbridge is used for security. There is also a special spiked gate called a portcullis. My greatest fear is that my castle could come under attack from enemies using battering rams and siege towers and that we may be under a siege that could last for weeks. We have our own well inside the courtyard and we keep supplies of extra food in the basement of the main building.

      The main living area for my family and I is on the top floor. We also have our own private chapel. To get to our living area we have to use the very narrow spiral stairs. There are very narrow windows and it is very cold. The Solar is the warmest room because it faces south. In the floor below us is the Great Hall and all the really important banquets are held there. It has two huge open fires and large tapestries hang on the walls. Soldiers also sometimes sleep there. My main pastimes are holding great banquets in which entertainment is provided by jesters and musicians. I also like to go hunting in the wintertime and in the summer we organise tournaments. Occasionally, I have to act as a judge and the court is held in the Great Hall. We have dungeons in the basement of the keep and sometimes prisoners are held there. Very serious crimes are punished by death

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      Mallen

      A Monk in Early Christian Ireland

      Christian missionaries began to arrive in Ireland to convert pagan Celts to Christianity between 400 and 500 AD.

      The first to arrive was Paladius but he died soon after his arrival.

      Patrick came next; first as a slave and later, he returned as a bishop.

      Soon, some devout Christians decided to live away from the other people and they built monasteries where they could pray.

      The first monastery was built by St. Enda on the Aran Islands in 490 BC.

      Monasteries resembled forts in many ways and they had a sacred and a non-sacred section.

      The sacred section housed the main church, graveyard, round tower, stone cross and Abbot’s cell.

      The abbot was the head of the monastery.

      The non-sacred section was where animals were kept, where farming was done and where the other monks slept.

      Every monk lived in his own special room called a beehive hut. Beehive huts were built using the corbel method – a method of building without the use of supports. It involved layering stone slabs on top of each other with the top one always jutting out slightly from the one beneath it.

      Monks’ clothes were made from coarse, un-dyed wool. Most of them wore a simple white tunic and over it a cape and a hood.

      On their feet, they wore leather sandals.

      As well as praying prayers such as lauds – dawn prayers – , matins – morning prayers – , and vespers – evening prayers – , the monks also worked around the monastery, farming, cooking, teaching and making crafts.

      They carved beautiful stone crosses and used the images on them to teach the ideas of Christianity.

      They also taught basic reading and writing.

      Monks were skilled metalworkers and they made chalices and other church vessels. These were made from gold and/or bronze. They were decorated with coloured glass, enamel and delicate filigree work.

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      Mallen

      A named Renaissance painter or sculptor (Leonardo da Vinci)

      Leonardo da Vinci was born in Vinci, near Florence in Italy in 1452.At the age of fifteen, he was sent to train as an artist’s apprentice in Florence.He worked with other apprentices in the studio of the famous painter and craftsperson, Andrea del Verrocchio.Here he learned the skills of painting and sculpture.His first painting of note was one of an angel in the corner of a larger work by Verrocchio called the “Baptist of Christ.” This angel was apparently painted so well that it caused Verrocchio to never paint again.Leonardo da Vinci was accepted into the Florentine artists’ guild at the age of twent and spent the next ten years working there, sometimes for Lorenzo de Medici.In 1482, he went to Milan to work for Ludovico Sforza, who often used him to organize engineering works and festivals.Around this time also, Leonardo da Vinci was compiling notebooks full of ideas for tanks, submarines, helicopters and parachutes. These notes were written in ‘mirror writing’ – from right to left.During his seventeen years in Milan, da Vinci painted only six paintings, including “The Virgin of the Rocks” and “The Last Supper,” which is a fresco painted onto a wall of a monostary in Santa Maria delle Grazie.In 1499, Leonardo left Milan and went to Florence where, among other work, he painted “The Mona Lisa,” which is now on display in Paris’ Louvre Museum.Sfumato is used in this painting which is a Renaissance technique which causes the lady’s hair and clothing to blend into the background.Leonardo da Vinci also studied science, dissecting corpses in his study of anatomy and drawing plants, horses and birds in flight in his effort to further the study of biology.He died in France, as a guest of King Francis I, in 1519.

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      Mallen

      A serf on a medieval manor

      A serf lived on a manor and the largest house belonged to the lord of the manor. A serf's home was a very small house made of wattle and daub walls. There was an earthen floor and a thatched roof. There was no chimney and just a hole in the roof for the smoke to escape through. A serf also kept animals inside at night to protect them.

      Most of a serf's time was spent farming. All the crops were sown in strips of land and all the work was done by hand. A lot of time was spent travelling from one strip to another. There was one huge field called the Common where all the animals of the serfs could graze every day. The main crops grown were barley, wheat, oats and flax and the lord's mill was used to ground the wheat and barley. A serf also had to work two days per week for the lord of the manor and had to give 10% of his crops to the Church. This was called a tithe.

      For food and drink, a serf ate a lot of bread and porridge and also lots of milk, butter and cheese. Animals were sometimes killed and the meat was salted for special occasions, such as the feasts of special saints. All the serf's clothing was hand-made and most people used both wool from the sheep they reared and linen from the flax they grew on their strips of land. Wild berries were used as a dye and shoes and coats were made from animal leather.

      The local lord made all the laws and serfs were not allowed to fish in local rivers or to hunt in forests. The lord could punish serfs and he had the power to put the serf in stocks for minor crimes, while very serious crimes were punished by death

    27. avatar image

      Mallen

      An archaeologist working on a dig

      An archaeologist is a person who excavates objects of interest from underground and sometimes from underwater. The place where the archaeologist works is called a site. Sometimes sites are found by accident, such as during the construction of new motorways. In 2007, an important discovery was made close to the Hill of Tara, where the new M3 motorway is being built. Sites can also be found by examining aerial photographs or from listening to old legends. Upon arrival at the site, the archaeologist must plan the excavation very carefully. A survey of the site is made and all the topsoil is removed. The area is then divided into grids and a site map is produced.

      When the archaeologist begins his or her work, tools such as brushes, shovels, trowels and sieves are used. The archaeologist has to work very carefully and has to be very patient. Objects that are found are called artefacts and these might include bones, pottery, weapons or jewellery. Everything is photographed and each artefact is carefully labelled and then sent to a laboratory. The exact age of artefacts can be determined by a scientific method called carbon 14 dating. Wooden artefacts can be dated using dendro-chronology. When archaeologists find human bones, these can also be analysed to determine age, cause of death and the health of that person when he or she was living. Many artefacts finally end up in museums where members of the public can go to view them. Historians use the information given to them by archaeologists in order to create a better picture of what life was like in pre-historic times.

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      Mallen

      An artist from outside of Italy Albrecht Dürer

      The artist, Albrecht Dürer, was a famous Renaissance artist from outside Italy. He was born in Germany and he was the most famous German artist of the Renaissance. He was born on 21 May, 1471 in Nuremberg, south Germany and his father was a goldsmith. As a young man he began his training in drawing and woodcutting. He became an apprentice to the best known artist in the city of Nuremberg when he was fifteen years old. After this, he travelled to other European countries, including Italy, and he met other artists and was inspired by them. He developed a great talent for doing engravings and he then set up his own workshop in Nuremberg. The engravings that he did were prints made from wood or copper. His best known works are his 18 engravings of the Apocalypse cycle, the most interesting of which is the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse. Like other artists, he also had to find patrons and the one who helped him most, at first, was Prince Frederick of Saxony. Dürer painted many religious pieces for the prince as well as other wealthy Nuremberg citizens. However, Dürer achieved his greatest fame in the many engravings he did when he received commissions from the Emperor Maximilian, who was the most powerful leader in Europe at he time. One of these is called The Triumphal Arch and is the largest woodcut print ever made. Dürer went on to become a firm supporter of Martin Luther and produced many woodcuts, which show his support for the Reformation. Dürer also completed lots of paintings, including self portraits and famous drawings of plants and animals. One of his famous ones is called the Young Hare and there is a huge amount of detail in it. Dürer died on 6 April, 1528 in Nuremberg and was buried in St. John’s churchyard.

    29. avatar image

      Aoife_9776

      Thanks

    30. avatar image

      Mallen

      Ancient Rome – Patrician.

      Hello , my name is Elouise , i am a young person living in ancient Rome. My father is a politician. So we are very wealthy. We live in a private house called a domus . it looks plain from the outside , with white blank walls and a shop on the building. You enter to the atrium and the other rooms are the bedrooms , the kitchen, the bathroom and the perityluim. We have morals (frescoes) and mosaics on or walls and floors. On my way to the baths I walk past an insule , here i where the plebeians live, its stone at the bottom , where the better-off live then the wooden floors at the top is where the poor live. We also go to are villa in the country side for some of the year.

      Or town is laid out in a grid pattern. The main buildings are the fourm , ampitheathre,baths and theatre.

      My father is totally in charge of family life, while my mother spends her time running the house hold by organising slaves and spinning. I am 14 years old and told I am to marry an 18 year old boy from another rich family. I am well prepared since I learnt how to by a wife/mother from my mother after i finished primary school. when i marries my father will give a dole to my ‘to be husband’ and i will give away all my toys as a sign of my maturity. I have lots of siblings, since allot of them died young. My older brother is now in secondary school (grammatic) there he learns history, philosophy , public speaking and much more. He wants to become a politician like my father.There is lots to do for entertainment such as gladiator fights in the amphitheather, here gladiators, slaves and convicts) fight to the death. My father also enjoys chariot racing in the cicus maximus. He is betting on the green team at the moment. My mother brought me to a play once in an open air-theatres. We sat in row of stone facing the stage.

      The baths is also very popular , here who can wash, meet up with friend or discuss business. Women and men bathe separately. There is three rooms the tepidarium(warm), caldarium(hot) or the frigearium(cold).

    31. avatar image

      Mallen

      Child living in ancient Rome

      My name is Marcus and I live in the city of Rome. I live in a poor part of the city and we are all called plebeians. My family and I live in a three storey building called an insulae. On the bottom floor there are shops and a place to buy food. We are not allowed to cook food inside our living area because the walls are made from wood. The rich people who live in my city are called patricians and they live in very big houses, which they call a domus. It is surrounded by a high wall and there is a beautiful garden inside as well as lots of statues and mosaics. We also have statues in our home because religion is a very important part of our lives. These statues are of our important Gods. I pray to the God of war called Mars and I ask him to protect all our soldiers fighting for the Roman Empire. My brother is a soldier in the great Roman army and he is fighting in a faraway place called Gaul. He is going to be in the army for at least twenty years and he is a fully trained soldier. The centre of our city is called the Forum and this is the place where all the important buildings are located and the place where a lot of people meet. My father is the head of our family and I attend school each day. We begin very early and finish at noon. The main subjects are maths, writing and reading. I wear a tunic every day and sandals. Wealthy men, such as the senators, wear a toga in public and their wives wear a stola. These garments have beautiful colours. There are also many slaves living in our city. Some of them work in the homes of the rich people as their servants. Some slaves also sweep and clean our streets and hundreds of them are in the gladiator schools, which are all over the city. For entertainment there are many choices in Rome. We can go to the great chariot races held at the Circus Maximus and my father and I like to put bets on the different teams. The public baths are a really good place to meet people. Then there are the Games at the Colosseum, which are usually exciting gladiator contests but there are often games in which the Gladiators fight wild animals.

    32. avatar image

      lilannila

      Thanks Mallen!

    33. avatar image

      ciara7373

      Thanks!

    34. avatar image

      Arogundade

      hi

    35. avatar image

      Sarah2014

      thanks guys

    36. avatar image

      Abbyfitz

      Does anyone have a people in history answer for: A farm labourer during the Agricultural Revolution?

    37. avatar image

      alfie_flynnzer

      My name is John Smith and I live in Norfolk in England. Over the past few years a huge number of changes have taken place in farming. Before the agricultural revolution most people lived in small villages and grew crops in fields scattered here and there and reared farm animals on the village common land. However, when people began to move to the new cities to work in big factories great changes took place in the countryside.

      The government passed a law, which was called the Enclosure Act, and this meant that farmers built fences and ditches and all their land was in one large unit.

      Another major change has been the introduction of a system of crop rotation, which began here in Norfolk, and this means that the soil is always kept enriched and does not get worn out. Our method is to plant a different crop in each field every year and in one year we let clover grow in the field as this is good for the soil.

      Another change was that new machines have been invented to make farming much easier but it also means that there is less need for as many farm labourers. One of these machines was invented by a man called Jethro Tull and it’s called the seed drill, which makes it possible to grow more grain because all the seeds are properly covered by soil when planting takes place.

      Lastly, another big change is that new and better breeds of cattle and sheep have been brought to the countryside, which have more meat and produce more milk.

    38. avatar image

      alfie_flynnzer

      My name is John Smith and I live in Norfolk in England. Over the past few years a huge number of changes have taken place in farming. Before the agricultural revolution most people lived in small villages and grew crops in fields scattered here and there and reared farm animals on the village common land. However, when people began to move to the new cities to work in big factories great changes took place in the countryside.

      The government passed a law, which was called the Enclosure Act, and this meant that farmers built fences and ditches and all their land was in one large unit.

      Another major change has been the introduction of a system of crop rotation, which began here in Norfolk, and this means that the soil is always kept enriched and does not get worn out. Our method is to plant a different crop in each field every year and in one year we let clover grow in the field as this is good for the soil.

      Another change was that new machines have been invented to make farming much easier but it also means that there is less need for as many farm labourers. One of these machines was invented by a man called Jethro Tull and it’s called the seed drill, which makes it possible to grow more grain because all the seeds are properly covered by soil when planting takes place.

      Lastly, another big change is that new and better breeds of cattle and sheep have been brought to the countryside, which have more meat and produce more milk.

    39. avatar image

      Abbyfitz

      Thanks!

    40. avatar image

      sophie544

      Does anyone have one on John a Costello and a factory worker in the industrial revolution?

    41. avatar image

      jenny_1000

      A mine

      or

      factory worker during the Industrial Revolution;It is 1835. I live in the city.I used to work in the domestic industry. Back then I could beginand end work when I wanted to, be independent of the bosses, workat my own speed and take breaks for meals. Now I work in theterrible conditions of the nearest factory. The noise is deafening – agrinding, screeching noise. The whole building shakes. The heat isvery great and the air is full of yellow dust. And the smell – thehorror of it when it comes to you from the heated rooms where theyscour wool of grease is unbearable. I work long hours for very littlepay. I work 15 hours a day and get paid 18p.I am shamefully and most cruelly beaten with a horsewhip,strap, stick, hammer, handle file or whatever is near at hand, or elseI’m punched or kicked. I am forced to crawl under the machines.Many of my friends have gotten injured and lost their jobs. One evendied.I work as a hurrier. I have to carry coal in a large basket on myback. I first started work when I was five, and was given a job as atrapper. My job was simply to open and close trap doors.My family is a working class family. Our house is grouped withother houses to form a slum. The houses are built back to back, andthe cellar floods in the winter. The moisture is creeping up the walls,making them damp and black. There are no indoor toilets. They areoutside and are shared by everyone. The entire family sleeps in oneroom. We have no furniture. We sleep on piles of straw on the floor.We have very little food. In prosperous times we have bread,cheese, porridge and potatoes, but a lot of the time all we have ispotatoes and in those times all we can do is be grateful for what wehave.We have little time for leisure. We usually spend our day off in thepub. We now have a half-day on Saturday as well as usual day off onSunday. Other activities include dog fights, cock fights, bull baitingand prize fighting. We also play sports such as football and rugby inthe winter and cricket in the summer. Everyone drinks on days off,whether they are rich or poor. Rich people drink wine, port andbrandy, but we have to drink ale, beer cider or gin.

    42. avatar image

      mh2000

      Does anyone have people in histories from the third year course?

    43. avatar image

      sarah_nunan

      Does anyone have notes on Wolfe Tone and Maximilian Robespierre?

    44. avatar image

      aine8666

      this is great! thanks guys

    45. avatar image

      FukDaJC

      Hitler

      He killed millions of people

      He was German

      That's about as far as I can get

    46. avatar image

      Topman

      Hes Austrian

    47. avatar image

      Whocares

      ..

    48. avatar image

      Whocares

      Thanks Jenny and Mallen! A loud of copy and paste must of went into this

    49. avatar image

      Whocares

      I'm joking thanks guys is there one on a planter receiving land during the 16th 17th century? Or did I miss it. Thanks

    50. avatar image

      Jennifer_8496

      Does anyone have one on John a Costello?

    51. avatar image

      Danielle1358

      life saver!!

    52. avatar image

      Danielle1358

      does anyone have one on Terence O'Neill? A leader involved in a cold war crisis? or a monk in a medieval monastery?

    53. avatar image

      Danielle1358

      A person during the famine?

    54. avatar image

      SryanBruen

      Anybody who wants people in history sample answers, look no further than here.

    55. avatar image

      Stargirl

      Conquest of the Incas or the Aztecs

      The new goods introduced to Europe and the New World

      The slave trade

      How the voyages of discovery change European knowledge of the world

    56. avatar image

      Stargirl

      people in history question please help

    57. avatar image

      Aniboh

      A soldier involved in the D-Day landings

    58. avatar image

      Stargirl

      Thanks so much

      It helped so much

    59. avatar image

      Me

      Share files from your computer
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