All Junior Cert Irish posts
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    Irish Grammar (Lessons) SryanBruen

    Since now I know how important Irish grammar is, now I post daily lessons on a grammar topic. I am not posting this for me, I am posting this for everybody who is learning Irish and finds Irish grammar very hard or tricky. This thread will make your Irish much more accurate allowing you to get full marks easily. All Irish grammar related questions go here also if you have any.

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      Aimsir Chaite (Past Tense)

      • Add a ‘h’ to the start of the verb unless it begins with L, N, R or Sc.

      • Add a d’ before the verb if it starts with a vowel.

      • Add a d’ AND a ‘h’ in the verb if it begins with an ‘f’.

      • Use the word ‘Ar’ and a ‘h’ to form questions.

      • Make sure to drop the d’ in question form.

      • To write in negative use Níor and a ‘h’.

      • Form a negative question by using ‘nár’ instead of ‘ar’.

      For the "we" form of the verb, you add "eamar" if it's slender or "amar" if it's broad and it's a one syllable verb. However, for a two syllable verb, you add "íomar" if it's slender or "aíomar" if it's broad.


      Fan (To stay)

      D'fhan mé

      D'fhan tú

      D'fhan sé / sí


      D'fhan sibh

      D'fhan siad

      Ceannaigh - To buy

      Cheannaigh mé

      Cheannaigh tú

      Cheannaigh sé / sí


      Cheannaigh sibh

      Cheannaigh siad

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      I meant to also say before this:

      If it's a two syllable verb, you drop the ending. Endings could include

      - igh (e.g. Mínigh)

      - aigh (e.g. Ceannaigh)

      - i (e.g. Inis)

      You do this in other tenses, not the Aimsir Chaite (except for the "we" form).

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      This is so helpful, thanks!!

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      this is really helpful.. can you add the other tenses as well :)

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      I will kingkarpe but I add one grammar topic daily. A rule always to remember about Irish is "Caol le caol, leathan le leathan" - very important!

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      Aimsir Láithreach (Present Tense)

      • To form a question, you use “An” and add an úrú instead of “Ar”.

      • To form a negative question, you use “Nach”.

      • To form the negative sentence, you use “Ní” and add a ‘h’.

      • Form the present tense by using the endings below.

      An Chéad Réimniú (The first declension)

      Caol (Slender)

      Mé - eann

      Tú - eann

      Sé / sí - eann

      Muid / sinn - imid

      Sibh - eann

      Siad - eann

      Leathan (Broad)

      Mé - ann

      Tú - ann

      Sé / sí - ann

      Muid / sinn - aimid

      Sibh - ann

      Siad - ann

      An Dara Réimniú (The second declension)

      Caol (Slender)

      Mé - íonn

      Tú - íonn

      Sé / sí - íonn

      Muid / sinn - ímid

      Sibh - íonn

      Siad - íonn

      Leathan (Broad)

      Mé - aíonn

      Tú - aíonn

      Sé / sí - aíonn

      Muid / sinn - aímid

      Sibh - aímid

      Siad - aímid

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      Oh correction sorry

      An Chéad Réimniú


      Mé - im


      Mé - aim

      An Dara Réimniú


      Mé - ím


      Mé - aím

      Sorry about that!

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      Múin - To teach


      Múineann tú

      Múineann sé / sí


      Múineann sibh

      Múineann siad

      Éirigh - To rise / get up


      Éiríonn tú

      Éiríonn sé / sí


      Éiríonn sibh

      Éiríonn siad

      Notice you do not put in the pronouns "mé" agus "muid / sinn" in this tense.

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      Remember that to tell if a verb is caol nó leathan depends on the last vowel in the verb.

      Múin is a caol (slender) verb because "i" is the last vowel.

      If a verb is caol, the last vowel is either "e" or "i".

      If a verb is leathan, the last vowel is either "a", "o" "u".

      You need to know these basic rules just to conjugate verbs.

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      Aimsir Fháistineach (Future Tense)

      • To form a question, you use the word “An” and add an úrú.

      • To form a negative question, you use the word “Nach”.

      • To form the negative sentence, you use “Ní” and add a ‘h’.

      • Form the future tense by using the endings below.

      An Chéad Réimniú


      Mé - fidh

      Tú - fidh

      Sé / sí - fidh

      Muid / sinn - fimid

      Sibh - fidh

      Siad - fidh


      Mé - faidh

      Tú - faidh

      Sé / sí - faidh

      Muid / sinn - faimid

      Sibh - faidh

      Siad - faidh

      An Dara Réimniú


      Mé - eoidh

      Tú - eoidh

      Sé / sí - eoidh

      Muid / sinn - eoimid

      Sibh - eoidh

      Siad - eoidh


      Mé - óidh

      Tú - óidh

      Sé / sí - óidh

      Muid / sinn - óimid

      Sibh - óidh

      Siad - óidh

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      Fág - To leave

      Fágfaidh mé

      Fágfaidh tú

      Fágfaidh sé / sí


      Fágfaidh sibh

      Fágfaidh siad

      Inis - To tell

      Inseoidh mé

      Inseoidh tú

      Inseoidh sé / sí


      Inseoidh sibh

      Inseoidh siad

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      So remember it like this for the pronouns you do not add after the conjugation of the verb in the tenses

      Aimsir Chaite: Ní "muid / sinn"

      Aimsir Láithreach: Ní "mé" agus "muid / sinn"

      Aimsir Fháistineach: Ní "muid / sinn"

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      SryanBruen can you do the modh caoinealach tense as well :)

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      I will be doing that tense tomorrow

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      Unless you want more than 1 lesson in a day?

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      Modh Coinníollach (Conditional Mood)

      • To form a question, you use the word “An” and add an úrú.

      • To form a negative question, you use the word “Nach”.

      • To form the negative sentence, you use “Ní” and add a ‘h’.

      • Like the past tense, you add a ‘h’ after the consonant at the beginning of the verb.

      • If the verb begins with a vowel, you add a d’ instead.

      • If the verb begins with an ‘f’, you add a ‘h’ and a d’.

      • Do not say the pronouns “mé”, “tú”, “muid” or “siad” in this tense.

      • Form the conditional mood by using the endings below:

      An Chéad Réimniú


      Mé - finn

      Tú - feá

      Sé / sí - feadh

      Muid / sinn - fimis

      Sibh - feadh

      Siad - fidís


      Mé - fainn

      Tú - fá

      Sé / sí - fadh

      Muid / sinn - faimis

      Sibh - fadh

      Siad - faidís

      An Dara Réimniú


      Mé - eoinn

      Tú - eofá

      Sé / sí - eodh

      Muid / sinn - eoimis

      Sibh - eodh

      Siad - eoidís


      Mé - óinn

      Tú - ófá

      Sé / sí - ódh

      Muid / sinn - óimis

      Sibh - ódh

      Siad - óidís

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      Ól - To drink



      D'ólfadh sé / sí


      D'olfadh sibh


      Imir - To play



      D'imreodh sé / sí


      D'imreodh sibh


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      "Go" in Irish cannot be translated literally but it frequently translates as either "That" or "To". For example,

      Ó áit go háit - From place TO place

      Tá súil agam go bhfuil tú i mbarr na sláinte - I hope THAT you are in the best of health

      When putting two verbs like the one above in a sentence in Irish, you have to say "Go" (That) even though you can say the sentence without "That" in English. You just have to I'm afraid, there's no way out of it.

      This article, "Go" varies by tense also.

      Aimsir Chaite: "Gur" + 'h' (e.g. gur bhagair - That threatened)

      Aimsir Láithreach: "Go" + úrú (e.g. go gcríochnaíonn - That finishes)

      Aimsir Fháistineach: "Go" + úrú (e.g. go bhfágfaidh - That will leave)

      Modh Coinníollach: "Go" + úrú (e.g. go bhféadfadh - That could)

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      Also, if it's a negative, you do not use "Gur" nó "Go", you use "Nár" (Aimsir Chaite) nó "Nach" (every other tense).

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      Thanks a mill

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      For emotions, in Irish, you say the feeling is "on" you. For example,

      Tá bron orm - I am sad but literally means "Sadness is on me".

      Tá sceithimíní orm - I am excited but literally means "Excitement is on me".

      This goes for all emotions and feelings.

      So the formation for this kind of sentence is,

      Bí + mothúcháin + ar (orm, ort, air, uirthi etc)

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      Here's the different prepositional pronouns for phrases like this ^

      Orm - On me

      Ort - On you

      Air - On him

      Uirthi - On her

      Orainn - On us

      Oraibh - On you (plural)

      Orthu - On them

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      There is no verb for the English verb, "To have" in Irish. However, we use a special idiomatic expression in Irish that you take as it means "To have". If you want to say the verb "To have" in Irish, then you say the object is "at you". For example,

      Tá leabhar agam - I have a book but literally means a book is at me

      Tá cara nua agam - I have a new friend but literally means a new friend is at me.

      Again you can change the tense of Bí to change the tense of "To have".

      Bhí oíche mhaith agam - I had a good night but literally means a good night was at me.

      Beidh an-craic agat - You will have great crack but literally means very crack will be at you.

      Sometimes on rare occasions though, you use "Ar" instead of "Ag" in the Aimsir Chaite - though most of the time you will use "Ag" so I wouldn't worry about this.

      Here's the prepositional pronouns for phrases like this ^

      Agam - At me

      Agat - At you

      Aige - At him

      Aici - At her

      Againn - At us

      Agaibh - At you (plural)

      Acu - At them

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      Here's a more complicated sentence using this and the grammar of "Go" which you already learnt here.

      Cheap mé go mbeinn oíche mhaith agam - I thought that I would have a good night

      ^ Notice the conditional mood used here

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      Also there is no verbal noun for "To have" in Irish. Verbal nouns are words like singing, doing, playing etc. Since there is no verbal noun, we take the tense as the verbal noun. So for example,

      Bhí oíche mhaith againn - We had a good night; but it could also mean "We were having a good night"

      Tá oíche mhaith agat - You have a good night; but it could also mean "You are having a good night"

      Do you get me?

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      The verb for "To listen" in Irish is Éist le. And even though in English you say "I listen TO", in Irish you say "I listen WITH". For example,

      D'éist mé leis an raidió ar maidin - I listened to the radio this morning

      Éistim le mo cheol gach lá - I listen to my music everyday

      Remember also that whenever you use "le" (With) in contexts like these unless there's possession like "my" or "your", you use "leis".

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      An Aidiacht Shealbhach (The Possessive Adjective)

      Consain (nouns beginning with consonants)

      Mo (+h) - My

      Do (+h) - Your

      A (+h) - His

      A - Her

      Ár (+ úrú) - Our

      Bhur (+ úrú) - Your (plural)

      A (+ úrú) - Their

      Mo leabhar - My book (do not add a 'h' with L, N, R, Sc)

      Mo pheann - My pen

      Ár bpinn luaidhe - Our pencils

      Gúta (nouns starting with vowels)

      Mo (M')

      Do (D')

      A - stays the same (his)

      A (+h) - her

      Ár (+n-)

      Bhur (+n-)

      A (+n-) - Their

      M'athair - My father

      D'airgead - Your money

      Bhur n-iníonacha - Your daughters

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      Aimsir Chaite: Saorbhriathar (Past tense: Free verb)

      The saorbhriathar is used when an action has been done but you don't know or state who did it.

      Tugadh soláistí saor dom - I was given free refreshments (see how you don't say who gave you them?)

      These are the endings the saorbhriathar takes in the Aimsir Chaite:

      An Chéad Réimniú

      Caol - eadh

      Leathan - adh

      An Dara Réimniú

      Caol - íodh

      Leathan - aíodh

      Itheadh an cáca a d'fhág mo mháthair ar an mbord - The cake that my mother left on the table was eaten

      ^ Do you get the gist of the saorbhriathar and when to use it?

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      When saying you're telling a story to someone you use the verb "Inis" - To tell. However, in most other cases, you use the irregular verb, "Abair" - To say even if in English you're saying "Tell" or "Told" or "Will tell" etc. For example,

      Ná habair aon bréaga - Never tell no lies (notice Abair?)

      D'inis mé an scéal do mo thuismitheoirí - I told the story to my parents (notice Inis?)

      Dúirt mé an príomhoide faoin thimpiste - I told the principal about the accident (notice Abair?)

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      When saying "Was", in the Aimsir Chaite, you use the verb "Bhí". It is an irregular verb and unfortunately has to be learnt off by heart.

      Bhí mé - I was

      Bhí tú - You were

      Bhí sé / sí - He / she was

      Bhíomar / Bhí muid - We were

      Bhí sibh - You were

      Bhí siad - They were

      However, you use a whole different word to say the negative, question form and "that was". In these cases, you use "Raibh" instead.

      Ní raibh mé - I wasn't

      Ní raibh tú - You weren't

      Ní raibh sé / sí - He / she wasn't

      Ní raibh muid - We weren't

      Ní raibh sibh - You weren't

      Ní raibh siad - They weren't

      Cheap mé go raibh mé - I thought that I was - Notice

      An raibh tú anseo? - Were you here? - Notice

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      There are two verbs for "To think" in Irish. Ceap and Smaoinigh. However, there's a difference between them and because of this, you cannot use whichever one you want in a situation using the verb "To think" in Irish.

      Ceap is more of a "vague" type of "think". A good example is

      Cheap mé go raibh tú sa teach - I thought that you were in the house

      However, Smaoinigh is more of "to think of something".

      Smaoinigh mé ar chleas - I thought of an idea

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      Aimsir Chaite Diúltach (Past Tense Negative)

      Remember that to make a negative regular verb in the past tense, you simply add "Níor" and a "h" to the verb.

      Níor chaith mé - I didn't lose

      Níor líon mé - I didn't fill

      However, irregular verbs are different. 5 of the irregular verbs in the Aimsir Chaite have rules like the regular verbs whilst the other 6 have to be learnt off by heart. These 6 are the following

      Abair - Ní dúirt (it is irregular, because it is not "Níor" nó "h")

      Bí - Ní raibh

      Feic - Ní fhaca

      Faigh - Ní bhfuair

      Déan - Ní dhearna

      Téigh - Ní dheachaigh

      You just have to know these I'm afraid! See the other irregular verbs have regular negative forms.

      Clois - Níor chuala

      Tar - Níor tháinig

      Ith - Níor ith

      Tabhair - Níor thug

      Beir - Níor rug

      You also use these negative forms (the 6 irregular ones) when you say "Go".

      For example,

      You do not say, go bhí - X

      But you say, go raibh - ✓

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      Níor chaill mé - I didn't lose** (correction)

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      In Irish, if you want to say "had to" something, you say "Bhí ar" + "verbal noun form".


      Bhí orm dul - I had to go

      Bhí orm imeacht - I had to leave

      You can also use

      B'éigean do

      B'éigean dom dul - I had to go / chase

      If you want to say "have to" (present tense) or "must" in Irish, then you say

      Caithfidh + pronoun + verbal noun form

      Caithfidh mé a rá - I must say

      Caithfidh mé a dhéanamh - I must do

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      Am I making Irish grammar any easier for anybody? I hope I am

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      Though there isn't an official name I know of for this, let's call it the Perfect Infinitive (which I saw somewhere that named this thing that). The Perfect Infinitive in English is when you say "To be ______" (something) like To be done, To be seen etc.

      In Irish, you form this by

      Le + verbal noun form of verb

      Le dul - To be going

      Le feiceáil - To be seen

      Le déanamh - To be done

      Full sentence example: Tá an téama seo go soiléir le feiceáil sa dán seo - This time is clearly to be seen in this poem


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      An + object + seo

      An leabhar seo - This book

      An lá seo - This day

      An teilifís seo - This TV


      Na + object + seo

      Na leabhair seo - These books

      Na fadhbanna seo - These problems

      Notice the difference?

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      "That" + object

      An + object + sin

      An lá sin - That day

      An cluiche sin - That game

      "That" + verb

      Go + verb conjugated (gur in the Aimsir Chaite) (make sure you add a séimhiú in the Aimsir Chaite and add an eclipsis to every other tense)

      Gur tharraing mé - That I pulled

      Go bhfeicfidh mé - That I will see

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      The difference between Tar éis and in dhiadh / ina dhiaidh.

      Tar éis is normally seen at the beginning of a sentence that uses "after". It is also used in the clock to represent "past".

      Tá sé ceathrú tar éis a deich - It is quarter past ten

      Tar éis sin, thosaigh mé ag éisteacht le mo iPod - After that, I started listening to my iPod

      However, ina dhiaidh is used in cases were you say "after" at the end of a sentence.

      Sroich mé ina dhiaidh tamaill - I arrived after a while

      Like you would NEVER say, tar éis tamaill (even if it's at the start of a sentence). You always move "after a while" to the end of a sentence even if in English you're saying "after a while" first.

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      There are two different To be's in Irish in the present tense (not counting "Is" - The Copula), "Tá" agus "Bíonn".

      Bíonn is the continuous present tense so like:

      Bíonn ranganna againn gach maidin - We have classes every morning

      Bíonn scoil agam gach Luain - I have school every Monday

      However, Tá is used in most other situations.

      Táim ar scoil - I am at school

      Tá sé te - It is hot

      Never use "Tá" with gach something that relates to time. For example, you use it in these situations

      Tá gach leathanach marcáilte - Every page is marked (see the difference?)

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      And correction on saying the verbal noun for To have.

      Tá oíche mhaith agat - You have a good night (but it CANNOT also mean "You are having a good night")

      Instead, you change Tá to Bíonn (because it's continuous and you learnt the difference between Tá and Bíonn above ^).

      Bíonn oíche mhaith agat - You are having a good night

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      Aimsir Láithreach: Saorbhriathar (Present tense: Free verb)

      The saorbhriathar is used when an action is being done but you don't know or state who did it.

      Deirtear linn faoin ábhar in Alt 2 - We are told about the subject in paragraph 2

      These are the endings the saorbhriathar takes in the Aimsir Láithreach:

      An Chéad Réimniú

      Caol - tear

      Leathan - tar

      An Dara Réimniú

      Caol - ítear

      Leathan - aítear

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      Hi could u please put these verbs into the past present future and mc please?? Can (to sing) buail , failigh , deisigh, inis , gleas(to dress) bailigh , feach, eist and codail?? Please if u don't mind these are my homework and I don't understand them!!

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      Chan mé / tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad



      Canann tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Canfaidh mé / tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad




      Canfadh sé / sí


      Canfadh sibh


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      First two are Aimsir Chaite, the next three are Aimsir Láithreach, the next two are Aimsir Fháistineach, the next six are Modh Coinníollach (I forgot to name the tenses above ^, which I will do now in other verbs)

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      Aimsir Chaite:

      Bhuail mé / tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Aimsir Láithreach:


      Buaileann tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Aimsir Fháistineach:

      Buailfidh mé / tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Modh Coinníollach:



      Buailfeadh sé / sí


      Buailfeadh sibh


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      Aimsir Chaite:

      D'fhailigh mé / tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Aimsir Láithreach:


      Failaíonn tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Aimsir Fháistineach:

      Failóidh mé / tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Modh Coinníollach:



      Failódh sé / sí


      Failódh sibh


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      Aimsir Chaite:

      Dheisigh mé / tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Aimsir Láithreach:


      Deisíonn tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Aimsir Fháistineach:

      Deiseoidh mé / tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Modh Coinníollach:



      Deiseodh sé / sí


      Deiseodh sibh


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      Aimsir Chaite:

      D'inis mé / tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Aimsir Láithreach:


      Insíonn tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Aimsir Fháistineach:

      Inseoidh mé / tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Modh Coinníollach:



      Inseodh sé / sí


      Inseodh sbh


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      Aimsir Chaite:

      Ghleas mé / tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Aimsir Láithreach:


      Gleasann tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Aimsir Fháistineach:

      Gleasfaidh mé / tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Modh Coinníollach:



      Gleasfadh sé / sí


      Gleasfadh sibh


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      Aimsir Chaite:

      Bhailigh mé / tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Aimsir Láithreach:


      Bailíonn tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Aimsir Fháistineach:

      Baileoidh mé / tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Modh Coinníollach:



      Baileodh sé / sí


      Baileodh sibh


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      Oh dammit hahaha sorry I did a mistake on all the Modh Coinníollach ones, add in a 'h' and a d' where you can! Like Baileoidís was meant to be Bhaileoidís. Sorry haha.

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      Aimsir Chaite:

      D'fhéach mé / tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Aimsir Láithreach:


      Féachann tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Aimsir Fháistineach:

      Féachfaidh mé / tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Modh Coinníollach:



      D'fhéachfadh sé / sí


      D'fhéachfadh sibh


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      Aimsir Chaite:

      D'éist mé / tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Aimsir Láithreach:


      Éisteann tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Aimsir Fháistineach:

      Éistfidh mé / tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Modh Coinníollach:



      D'éistfeadh sé / sí


      D'éistfeadh sibh


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      Thanks so much!! Just eist and codail aswell if u don't mind! Thank you!'

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      Oh sorry u just posted it. Thanks so much again :)

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      Aimsir Chaite:

      Chodail mé / tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Aimsir Láithreach:


      Codlaíonn tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Aimsir Fháistineach:

      Codlóidh mé / tú / sé / sí / sibh / siad


      Modh Coinníollach:



      Chodlódh sé / sí


      Chodlódh sibh


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      There are two MAIN ways of saying "To want" in Irish.

      You say either,

      Teastaigh + ó

      Bí + ag iarraidh

      Theastaigh uaim dul go dtí an siopa - I wanted to go to the shop

      Ní raibh mé ag iarraidh a deireadh é - I didn't want it to end

      There is no difference really between them of when to use them. It is better off learning phrases like these though ^ because at least then, you don't have a chance of using the wrong To want.

      If you use the Teastaigh + ó one here's the prepositional pronouns you choose from

      Uaim (Also means "Alliteration")







      When conjugation for the Aimsir Láithreach, do not get confused with saying "Teastaím uaim" - That's incorrect! It's actually Teastaíonn uaim (so you only have to do one conjugation for this verb in the tense when saying "To want").

      Teastaíonn uaim - I want

      Teastaíonn uainn - We want

      ^ See?

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      There are two different forms of "If" in Irish, Má agus Dá. There is a simple rule of when to use either.

      Má is followed by any verb that is in the Aimsir Chaite, Láithreach agus Fháistineach.


      Dá is followed by any verb that is in the Modh Coinníollach.

      Má tiocfaidh sé go ndeanfaidh mé an rud ansin - If he will come, I will do the thing then

      Dá thiocfá go mbeinn áthas orm ansin - If you would come, then I would be happy

      ^ See the difference?

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      Can you put the 11 irregular verbs in past present future and mc please? Just the he/she/ye/they part! Please :)

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      Aimsir Chaite:

      Bhí sé / sí


      Bhí sibh

      Bhí siad

      Ní raibh

      An raibh


      Aimsir Láithreach:

      Tá sé / sí; Bíonn sé / sí

      Táimid; Bímid

      Tá sibh; Bíonn sibh

      Tá siad; Bíonn siad


      An bhfuil / An mbíonn

      Táthar / Bítear

      Aimsir Fháistineach:

      Beidh sé / sí


      Beidh sibh

      Beidh siad

      Ní bheidh

      An mbeidh


      Modh Coinníollach:

      Bheadh sé / sí


      Bheadh sibh


      Ní bheadh / bheimis / bheidís etc

      An mbeadh / mbeimis / mbeidís etc


      Verbal noun form: Ag bheith

    62. avatar image



      Aimsir Chaite:

      Dúirt sé / sí


      Dúirt sibh

      Dúirt siad

      Ní dúirt

      An ndúirt


      Aimsir Láithreach:

      Deireann sé / sí


      Deireann sibh

      Deireann siad

      Ní deirim

      An ndeireann / ndeirimid etc


      Aimsir Fháistineach:

      Déarfaidh sé / sí


      Déarfaidh sibh

      Déarfaidh siad

      Ní déarfaidh

      An ndéarfaidh


      Modh Coinníollach:

      Déarfadh sé / sí


      Déarfadh sibh


      Ní déarfadh / déarfaimis / déarfaidís etc

      An ndéarfadh / ndéarfaimis / ndéarfaidís etc


      Verbal noun form: Ag rá

    63. avatar image


      You can actually see the verbs here

      Though there are a couple of typos and mistakes that they made. I am sure with your knowledge of the tenses, you will recognise them! Like how it says "éarfimis sé" - when it's supposed to say "déarfadh sé" - easy mistake to correct because it's the same as the "sí" and "sibh" conjugation form.

    64. avatar image




      Chuaigh mé go dtí an siopa inné ach níor cheannaigh mé aon rud - I went to the shop yesterday but I didn't buy anything


      Ní + verb + ach

      Ní raibh mé sásta ach inné - I was only satisfied yesterday

      Níor cheannaigh mé ach mar dúirt tú dom - I only went because you told me to

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      Remember your synthetic pronouns!

      When the pronoun (subject pronoun - if you want me to be more specific) is conjoined into the verb and appears as one word, this is called a synthetic form.

      Aimsir Chaite: Ní "muid"

      Aimsir Láithreach: Ní "mé" agus "muid" (Although it is sometimes okay to say the verb with mé after it, for example, Tá mé (which can be also Táim)

      Aimsir Fháistineach: Ní "muid"

      Modh Coinníollach: Ní "mé", "tú", "muid" agus "siad"


      Ithim - I eat

      Cheannaíomar - We bought

      Déanfaimid - We will make

      Thiocfainn - I would come

    66. avatar image


      A common mistake that I have seen in many litreacha is the fact that students tend to say "Dom" instead of "Chugam". Here is a big difference as an example between the two:

      Scríobh tú dom - You wrote FOR me

      Scríobh tú chugam - You wrote TO me

      ^ Though Dom also means "To me", in this case, it doesn't and you MUST use Chugam instead.

      Scríobh litir chugam go luath - Write TO me soon

      ^ Another example

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      With the help of prepositions, Cuir can have many different verb meanings. In this case, I will discuss three different verbs it can translate as. Firstly, without a preposition, it is the verb To put:

      Chuir mé mo chuid éadaí scoile orm - I put my school clothes on

      With the preposition "ar" and the word "glao" / "glaoch" OR "fios", it becomes the verb To call (Glaoigh is also perfectly acceptable for To call instead of this if you like):

      Chuir sé fios ar an otharcharr - He called the ambulance

      Chuir mé glaoch ar mo chairde inné - I called my friends yesterday

      Ghlaoigh mé ar mo chairde inné - I called my friends yesterday

      ^ See no difference between using Glaoigh or Cuir?

      There is no verb for "To scare" in Irish but we use the phrase "To put fear on something / someone" to make the verb To scare. So for example,

      Chuir mé eagla ar mo dheartháir inniu - I scared my brother today (literally "I put fear on my brother today")

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      There are three translations for "Before" in Irish. These are Sula, Sular or Roimh - technically 2 translations since Sular is much like Sula.

      Roimh is used before nouns.

      Bhí eagla orm roimh an mbean sí - I was afraid of the banshee (notice the noun "an mbean"?)

      Sula / Sular is used before verbs.

      Bhí an turas eitleáin fada sular sroich mé ag Málaga - The plane journey was long before I arrived at Málaga (notice the verb "sroich")

      The difference between Sula and Sular meanwhile is:

      Sula is used before verbs in the Aimsir Láithreach, Aimsir Fháistineach agus Modh Coinníollach.

      Sular is used before verbs in the Aimsir Chaite.

      This came up on my mock for Q3 B on paper 1, so make sure you know this!

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      There are four different forms of "except" in Irish and the literal translations may give you an indication here of when to use each.

      ach amháin (go) - "but alone(that)"

      cé is moite de/go - "who is exception of/that"

      diomaite de - "apart from"

      seachas - "besides"

      The most you'd probably use is "Seachas".

      Thug mé mo leabhair na scoile abhaile seachas mo leabhar stair - I brought all my school books except History

      ^ For example

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      To say the verb "To visit" in Irish, we say "give a visit on". So the verb is technically,

      Tabhair + cuairt + ar

      For example,

      Thug mé cuairt ar pháirc uisce - I visited a waterpark

      Tugaim cuairt ar Bhaile Átha Cliath gach lá - I visit Dublin every day

      Tabharfaidh mé cuairt ort amárach - I will visit you tomorrow

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      I will start now telling you times when you use a "séimhiú" or "úrú".

      You use a séimhiú after "go dtí an", of course the usual exceptions apply.

      Chuaigh mé go dtí an chistin - I went to the kitchen

      Rachaidh mé go dtí an siopa - I will go to the shop

      You use an "úrú" after "go" (not "gur" in the Aimsir Chaite though which you use a 'h' (séimhiú).

      Dúradh liom go gcuireadh mé ar shínteáin - I was told that I was put on a stretcher

      Tá súil agam go bhfuil tú i mbarr na sláinte - I hope that you are in the best of health (bhfuil is its own word anyways but if it were used in other situations than after "go", "a" or "an", it would be just "fuil" - so it is considered an úrú ("bh" is the úrú for 'f').

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      When forming questions and saying "what _____ (a noun)", you do not use Cad nó céard. Instead you use Cén (literally "Which"). When saying "what and a noun together" in Irish, you always use Cén.

      Cén comhairle? - What advice?

      Cén post? - What job?

      Cén aimsir? - What weather?

      Cén siopa? - What shop?

      I think you get the point. I could go on forever with loads of examples.

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      When saying "never" in Irish, you use the negative form of the verb. You can't just say for example:

      Thiocfaidís riamh - They would never come

      The correct way of saying it is actually

      Ní thiocfaidís riamh

      It is a small silly mistake that loads of students make but remember that I am trying to help you keep your grammar as accurate as possible so you don't lose marks on inaccurate grammar on your exam.

    74. avatar image


      A very silly and confusing mistake that I have seen also is the fact that some people use "Ag rince" instead of "Ag damhsa".

      They both mean "dancing" but there's one difference.

      Ag rince = IRISH dancing

      Ag damhsa = Dancing (in general)

      This mistake annoys me and I just had to distinguish between these two similar verbal nouns.

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      In English to emphasise words, we tend to raise our voice (e.g. HE isn't to blame). In Irish we do not do this. Instead we use special emphatic forms of the subject pronouns (mé, tú, sé, sí etc). These are the emphatic pronouns:

      Mise - I

      Tusa - You

      Seisean - He

      Síse - She

      Muidne / Sinne - We

      Sibhse - You (plural)

      Siadsan - They

      More examples

      I WILL NOT GO - Ní rachaidh mise

      They will never LEAVE ME ALONE AGAIN - Ní fhágfaidh siad riamh mise i m'aonar arís

      MY NAME is - Is mise...

      ^ See the difference?

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      The days of the week appear in two forms in Irish with either the article "an" or the word "Dé" preceding them.

      The article "an" is used when simply listing the days:

      An Luan - Monday

      An Mháirt - Tuesday

      Inniu an Chéadaoin - Today is Wednesday

      An Chéadaoin ina dhiaidh sin - The following Wednesday

      The word "Dé" is used when referring to (on) a specific day of the week.

      Dé Luain seo chugainn - Next Monday

      Tráthnóna Dé Céadaoin - On Wednesday evening

      Oíche Dé Máirt - On Tuesday night

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      To say "Last" in Irish as in time (months, days, years), you generally use "Seo caite":

      An bhliain seo caite - Last year

      An Lúnasa seo caite - Last August

      Dé Máirt seo caite - Last Tuesday

      An tseachtain seo caite - Last week

      An exception is Last night which instead of "An oíche seo caite" (which is incorrect), you use the word "Aréir".

      Tháinig mé abhaile aréir - I came home last night

      When saying "Next" in Irish as in time, you generally use "Seo chugainn"

      An bhliain seo chugainn - Next year

      Tá mo Theastas Sóisearach agam an Mheitheamh seo chugainn - I have my Junior Cert next June

      Dé Céadaoin seo chugainn - Next Wednesday

      Rachaidh mé ann an tseachtain seo chugainn - I will go there next week

    78. avatar image


      hi I was wondering if u could send me verbs in present and future and that is changed into past tense thanks in advance

    79. avatar image


      Though Irish does not have any infinitives, there is this form of the verb called the Imperative. This is used when you tell someone to do something. For example,

      Dún an doras! - Shut the door!

      Tóg an leabhar! - Pick up the book!

      Éist leis an cheol! - Listen to the music!

      Taispeáin dom an pictiúr - Show me the picture

      However, this is only for when you tell one person to do something. I will go over the imperative another day when you tell more than one person to do something.

    80. avatar image


      Are you going to continue these lessons after the junior cert. I find these very helpful.

    81. avatar image


      Yes I am Bella and I am glad that you find them very helpful.

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      When saying "you have hair", you do not say "Tá gruaig rua agam" etc. You instead use the preposition "ar".

      Tá gruaig rua orm - I have red hair

      Tá gruaig dhubh ort - You have black hair

      Tá gruaig dhonn air - He has brown hair

      Tá gruaig fhionn uirthi - She has blonde / fair hair

      So you literally say, "the hair is on you".


      Tá + gruaig + gruaig dath + ar

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      Aimsir Fháistineach: Saorbhriathar (Future tense: Free verb)

      The saorbhriathar is used when an action will be done but you don't know or state who will do it.

      Goidfear na cácaí ón bácús - The bakery's cakes will be stolen

      These are the endings the saorbhriathar takes in the Aimsir Fháistineach:

      An Chéad Réimniú

      Caol - fear

      Leathan - far

      An Dara Réimniú

      Caol - eofar

      Leathan - ófar

      Imreofar an cluiche - The game will be played

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      Whether it's a noun, adjective or verb, you never add a séimhiú onto the word if the preposition before it is:

      - Le

      - Ag

      - As

      - Chuig

      However, you put in a séimhiú on the following word if it's preceded by the following prepositions:

      - Ar

      - De

      - Do

      - Faoi

      - Ó

      - Trí

      - Thar

      - Roimh

      - Den

      - Don

      - Sa

    85. avatar image


      You add an úrú on the word following a preposition if the preposition is:

      - Ag an

      - As an

      - Chuig an

      - Leis an

      - Ar an

      - Faoin

      - Ón

      - Tríd an

      - Thar an

      - Roimh an

      - I

    86. avatar image


      To say you work as something like "I am a teacher" or "you are a vet" etc, you DO NOT use "Tá nó Bíonn". Instead, you use "Is" - which is called The Copula. You also use these pronouns which some are slightly different than the normal ones you come across.

      These are called Direct Object Pronouns.




      Muid / sinn



      Is fear gnó é - He is a business man

      Is dalta bunscoile í - She is a primary school student

      Is dochtúir é mo dheartháir - My brother is a doctor

      Is múinteoir mé - I am a teacher

      Is dalta í is fearr - She is the best student

      As can be seen on the last example, the Copula is also used in situations of using the Superlative Adjective (Best, Worst, Nicest etc).

    87. avatar image


      Sorry correction Is í an dalta is fearr sa scoil - She is the best student

      Always put the pronoun before "an" if it appears in a sentence.

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      The Aimsir Ghnáthchaite (Habitual past tense) is a tense used for situations where you use the two modal verbs, "would" and "used to". Like the other tenses, the rules depend on the number of syllables in the verb as well as caol nó leathan.

      For two syllable verbs, do not forget to take off the ending or "i" nó "ai" etc before putting on the ending for the tense.

      An Chéad Réimniú


      Mé - inn

      Tú - teá

      Sé / sí / muid / sibh - eadh

      Siad - idís


      Mé - ainn

      Tú - tá

      Sé / sí / muid / sibh - adh

      Siad - aidís

      An Dara Réimniú


      Mé - ínn

      Tú - íteá

      Sé / sí / muid / sibh - íodh

      Siad - ídís


      Mé - aínn

      Tú - aíteá

      Sé / sí / muid / sibh - aíodh

      Siad - aídís

      You also add the 'h' and d' where possible - just like the Aimsir Chaite and Modh Coinníollach. However, the Ghnáthchaite differs from the Aimsir Chaite in terms of these rules because:

      - You use "An" instead of "Ar" for questions.

      - You use "Nach" instead of "Nár" for negative questions.

      - You use "Ní" instead of "Níor" for negative sentences.

      In this tense, you only use the pronouns, Sé / sí / muid / sibh.

      D'imrínn - I would play / I used to play

      D'insínn - I would tell / I used to tell

      D'fhanadh - I would stay / I used to stay

      I could go on and on with examples but you get the point?

    89. avatar image



      D'fhanadh sé / sí / muid / sibh - He/she/we/you would stay/used to stay

    90. avatar image



    91. avatar image


      Do you have any sentences for briathar saor? That could be used in a. Timpiste story please :)

    92. avatar image


      Elisha they can be found here

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      When using the verb "Abair" in any tense, make sure you use the preposition "Le" and NOT "Do".

      Dúradh liom - I was told

      Deirtear linn - We are told

      Dúirt tú liom - You said to me

      And so on...

    94. avatar image


      When you think in Irish you should be using phrases and grammar like these to help you translate sentences. DO NOT TRANSLATE from Irish into English like this:

      I have a book

      Tá mé ag leabhar - This means NOTHING but if you take literally, you are saying "I am at a book".

      Think of phrases like:

      I love him - Tá grá agam dó - literally means "Love is at me for him" or "I have love for him"

      I scared - Chuir mé eagla ar - literally means "I put fear on"

      Once you think in Irish, translating sentences will get easier and easier.

    95. avatar image


      It took me some time to think in Irish, so do not feel that you should give up!

    96. avatar image


      Is tar éis tamaill really never used? I remember encountering that phrase so many times in primary school :/

    97. avatar image


      Sorry it is "rarely" used, not "never used". I have encountered it before but I have seen ina dhiaidh tamaill much more commonly.

    98. avatar image


      Remember guys that accurate grammar is extremely important in Irish. Like 40 of the 50 marks for your ceapadóireacht go for accurate grammar! This is why I created this thread and tá súil agam go mbeidh sibh go maith amárach ar do scrúdú!

    99. avatar image


      thank you so much for all your help

    100. avatar image


      You're very welcome whitneyima. When should I continue with this thread guys?

    101. avatar image


      I think you should continue it next september but when ever you like

    102. avatar image


      What is the difference between Tóg and Gabh?

      Tóg = To take away / To take up something

      Gabh = To take hold of something / To catch

      Tóg an leabhar - Take the book

      Gabh mo leithscéal - Excuse me

    103. avatar image


      When saying "Of" with a possessive pronoun, this is what you do:

      Noun + Possessive pronoun + Noun in genitive case

      Love of my life - Grá mo shaoil

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      What úrú do you add to each letter

    105. avatar image


      (Úrú is lower cased here)








      n- (all vowels)

    106. avatar image


      What colour is the exam paper if its on a friday evening

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      Excuse me Stephen??

    108. avatar image


      Thank you.

    109. avatar image


      Could you please do the irregular verbs in all tenses

    110. avatar image



      Bhí mé / Bhíomar

      Ní raibh

      Go raibh

      An raibh?


      Táim / Tá / Táimid


      Go bhfuil

      An bhfuil?

      AIMSIR GNÁTHLÁITHREACH (continuous present)

      Bím / Bíonn / Bímid


      Go mbíonn

      An mbíonn?


      Beidh / Beimid

      Ní bheidh

      Go mbeidh

      An mbeidh?


      Bheinn / Bheifeá / Bheadh sé-sí-sibh / Bheimis / Bheidís

      Ní bheinn

      Go mbeinn / mbeifeá etc

      An mbeinn / mbeifeá etc

    111. avatar image




      Dúirt / Dúramar

      Ní dúirt

      Go ndúirt

      An ndúirt?


      Deirim / Deireann / Deirimid

      Ní deirim

      Go ndeirim

      An ndeirim?


      Déarfaidh / Déarfaimid

      Ní déarfaidh

      Go ndéarfaidh

      An ndéarfaidh


      Déarfinn / Déarfá / Déarfadh sé-sí-sibh / Déarfaimis / Déarfidís

      Ní déarfinn

      Go ndéirfinn / ndéarfá etc

      An ndéarfinn / ndéarfá etc

    112. avatar image

      A.ní Bhraoin

      These notes are fantastic. Very useful and well explained

    113. avatar image


      Thank you so much this is so helpful

    114. avatar image


      Sorry but i could not find out the rules involving mascline and femine nouns?

    115. avatar image



    116. avatar image


      Very Helpful

    117. avatar image


      Nualeargais is an awesome site if you want to continue advancing your Irish grammar

    118. avatar image


      This is very helpful! Could you explain the forainmneacha reamhfhoclacha

    119. avatar image


      Oh sorry Rollo123, forgot to answer this.

      Na forainmneacha réamhfhoclacha are the prepositional pronouns. These in English are things like: "From me, at you, before she" etc.

      In Irish, these are very important and quite often used in basic sentences. Many, many, many idiomatic expressions (or in simpler terms for you "Irish phrases") require these or else they don't make sense. I've spoken about such expressions in this thread, so please check them out. I will cover more idiomatic expressions soon of ones I haven't done.

    120. avatar image


      Have you ever wondered why some adjectives don't require "Go" in a sentence whilst others do like "Go hiontach"?

      Well the adjectives when wrote with the verb "Bí (To be)" are seen as adverbs of the verb Bí. Like I said previously, adverbs are wrote as, Go + adjective/verb in Irish.

      Tá an fear go maith - The man is good.

      Tá an cailín go hálainn - The girl is beautiful.

      Tá an lá go deas - The day is nice.

      Tá an aimsir go dona - The weather is bad.

      Tá an samhradh go haoibhinn - The summer is splendid.

      Tá an rós go breá - The rose is pretty.

      Tá sé go holc - It is evil.

      Tá sí go hiontach - She is wonderful.

      Here are lots of examples above to show you this.

      However, it is not always like this. If there are additional adverbs like Rather (Sách) or Always (Riamh / i gcónaí), the additional adverbs take the place of the "Go" and "Go" is no longer in the sentence. Also, "Go" does not ever appear with the copula. See the following examples to show you:

      Bíonn beoir maith i gcónaí - Beer is always good.

      Bhíodh sí riamh álainn - She was always beautiful.

      Tá an lá réasúnta deas. - The day is reasonably nice.

      Bhí an aimsir sách dona inné - The weather was rather bad yesterday.

      Tá an lá go deas - The day is nice.

      Is deas é an lá - The day is nice.

      ^ Notice "Is", the copula not using "Go" on deas.

    121. avatar image


      can u do notes on na forainmneacha réamhfhocla specifically (ó, le , faoi , roimh, as , de ) like as in roimh - romham romhat roimhe roimpi etc etc!

      can u then vividly explain when each of these are used and best ways to learn/understand!

    122. avatar image


      Can you also if you have them send me notes on AN T-ÁDH , SUBH MILIS, SPÁS. what was that website u mentioned above which was good for irish grammar

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      bump @sryan bruen ^^^^^

    124. avatar image


      Wow these notes are really helpful thanks:) I was wondering if you had any ideas on what sort of eachtras to learn I have on about a disco and one about feeling sick in school is there anymore major ones ( because I only got a proper Irish teacher this year)

    125. avatar image


      And also one about a concert

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      Personal pronouns you already basically know like Me, you. Now we'll be combining them with prepositions. Today I'm going to be talking about the preposition Faoi which is Under or About in English. These are the personal pronouns for Faoi

      Fúm - Under me

      Fút - Under you

      Faoi - Under him

      Fúithi - Under her

      Fúinn - Under us

      Fúibh - Under you's

      Fúthu - Under them

      These personal pronouns are used in conjunction with the verb "Bí" and a specific action. For example,

      Tá siúl fúm - I walk fast

      Tá fuadar fút - You're in a hurry

      Bhí fuadar fút - You were in a hurry

      Bhí siúl fúm - I walked fast

      Beidh siúl fúinn - We will walk fast

      Beidh fuadar fúibh - You's will be in a hurry

      See how easy it is to form sentences like this once you know those pronouns?

    127. avatar image


      cw15 I'm sorry, I will sometime. I'm just not sure when exactly. Here's the An tÁdh notes. I never did Spás or Subh Milis but I did post a sample answer for Subh Milis here:


      attachment Irish An tÁdh.docx

    128. avatar image


      Eva, all you need to know is Timpiste. Nothing else.

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      How to do well in the fill in the blanks section of trialacha teanga?

    130. avatar image


      Today, I'm going to be continuing on from Faoi but I'm going to be doing the possessive pronouns for Faoi now instead of the personal pronouns. If you don't know the difference between possessive and personal pronouns well here ya go:

      Possessive pronouns: My, Your, His, Her, Our, Your's, Their

      Personal pronouns: Me, You, He, She, We, You's, They

      With that out of the way, here are the possessive pronouns for Faoi, when applied with a consonant following them.

      Faoi mo (+ h)

      Faoi do (+ h)

      Faoina (+ h)


      Faoinár (+ úrú)

      Faoi bhur (+ úrú)

      Faoina (+ úrú)

      As you can see, the normal possessive pronouns' (or possessive adjectives as they are known as) rules are applied with prepositions also like adding a "h" or úrú.

      These are the possessive pronouns for Faoi, when applied with a vowel following them.

      Faoi m'

      Faoi d'


      Faoina (+ h)

      Faoinár (+ n-)

      Faoi bhur (+ n-)

      Faoina (+ n-)

      Again normal rules for possessive pronouns also apply here with prepositions.

      The book is under my table - Tá an leabhar faoi mo bhord

      I left the plate under his sink - D'fhág mé an pláta faoina dhoirteal

      I left the plate under the sink - D'fhág mé an pláta faoina dhoirteal

      Notice how "I left the plate under _____ sink" does not change even with the different word (from "his" to "the). This is because, Sink is a masculine word and therefore follows the rules of the "His" form of the preposition. If it were female, it would change slightly to fit the feminine rules. I'll go over masculine and feminine rules of nouns someday. They're definitely very tricky to learn thus why I'm not going over them in great detail just yet! I'm getting all the easy Irish grammar out of the way first.

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      When applied with numbers, the preposition Faoi becomes "Times". Thus, why you see on your exam papers in the Listening, Faoi dhó which means Two times or Twice. Faoi cannot be applied with Once or One time however and instead, that is Uair amháin.

      Uair amháin

      Faoi dhó

      Faoi thrí

      Faoi ceithre

      Faoi cúig

      Faoi sé

      And so on

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      That was just something small I wanted you to be aware of, no need to worry about them as you will barely use them ever.

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      To say you have a desire in something, you use the preposition "Ag" and the verb "Bí" with this method of formation:

      Bí + dúil + ag + i + object you have a desire in

      Tá dúil agam in airgead - I have a desire in/for money, basically means, I want money

      Remember that the preposition "i" becomes "in" when placed before a word that begins with a vowel.

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      When combining "for" with an amount of money, you use the preposition Ar. For example,

      Ar phunt - For a pound

      Tá punt ar an t-ull - The apple costs a pound

      As you can see, you literally say "The pound is on the apple" or "The currency is on the object".

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      To state probability in Irish (probably, likely etc), all you do is combine the verb "Bí" with the preposition Ar and have what is likely in between the two. For example,

      Tá baisteach air - It will probably rain / It will likely rain

      Tá cogadh air - There'll likely be a war

      It's as simple as that!

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      An tAinm Briathartha means The Verbal Noun. Verbal nouns are words like jogging, running etc i.e. verbs ending in "ing". In this case, they become nouns rather than verbs thus why they're called verbal nouns. In Irish, verbal nouns are irregular and have to be learnt off by heart unfortunately. However, they are recognised by the preposition "Ag" and many of them are repetitive. Here are lots of verbal nouns for you:

      Ag rince - dancing

      Ag brú - pushing

      Ag tarraingt - pulling

      Ag déanamh - doing

      Ag iarraidh - trying

      Ag feabhsú - improving

      Ag meath - declining/withering

      Ag gortú - hurting/injuring

      Ag éalú - escaping/fleeing

      Ag troid - fighting

      Ag traenáil - training

      Ag cleachtadh - practising

      Ag ullmhú - preparing

      Ag buachan - winning

      Ag cailleadh - losing

      Ag casadh - turning

      Ag léim - jumping

      Ag tabhairt - giving

      Ag éisteacht + le - listening to

      Ag féachaint + ar - watching

      Ag breathnú + ar - watching/observing

      Ag smaoineamh ar - thinking about

      Ag roghnú - choosing/selecting

      Ag séideadh - blowing

      Ag bailiú - collecting/gathering

      Ag imeacht - leaving

      Ag dul - going

      Ag teacht - coming

      Ag imirt - playing (sports, games)

      Ag seinm - playing (musical instruments)

      Ag casadh - playing (music/CDs/records/MP3, etc)

      Ag béicíl - screaming/cheering

      Ag gearán - complaining

      Ag leanúint - continuing/following

      Ag coimeád - keeping

      Ag ionsaí - attacking

      Ag cosaint - defending

      Ag ligint - letting

      Ag scaoileadh - releasing/shooting

      Ag rith - running

      Ag snámh - swimming

      Ag rothaíocht - cycling

      Ag caitheamh - throwing/wearing/spending/smoking

      Ag breith - catching

      Ag preabadh - bouncing

      Ag greamú - grabbing/tackling/sticking

      Ag bualadh - hitting/striking

      Ag tógáil - taking/building

      Ag dúnadh - closing

      Ag oscailt - opening

      Ag ithe - eating

      Ag ól - drinking

      Ag rá - saying

      Ag insint - telling

      Ag fáil - finding/getting

      Ag líonadh - filling

      Ag scríobh - writing

      Ag léamh - reading

      Ag glanadh - cleaning

      Ag eagrú - organising

      Ag díol - selling

      Ag gearradh - cutting

      Ag baint - taking off

      Ag briseadh - breaking

      Ag fágáil - leaving

      Ag fanacht - staying/waiting

      Ag ní - washing

      Ag scuabadh - brushing

      Ag cíoradh - combing

      Ag dó - burning

      Ag ceannach - buying

      Ag tosú - starting

      Ag críochnú - finishing

      Ag dúiseacht - waking

      Ag éirí - getting up/becoming

      Ag deisiú - mending/fixing

      Ag múineadh - teaching

      Ag foghlaim - learning

      Ag ceangal - tying

      Ag mothú - feeling

      Ag brath - depending

      Ag glacadh - taking/accepting

      Ag aontú - agreeing

      Ag diúltú - refusing

      Ag moladh - suggesting/praising

      Ag cruthú - creating/proving

      Ag guí + ar - praying/imploring

      Ag gealladh - promising

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      This list is the prepositions that are combined with the article An (The) and which of the methods you use, séimhiú OR úrú.

      Ar an (+ urú)

      Ag an (+ urú)

      As an (+ urú)

      Chuig an (+ urú)

      Don (+ séimhiú)

      Den (+ séimhiú)

      Faoin (+ urú)

      Sa (+ séimhiú)

      Ionsar an (+ urú)

      Leis an (+ urú)

      Ón (+ urú)

      Roimh an (+ urú)

      Thar an (+ urú)

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      When to use the Genitive Case (An Tuiseal Ginideach)

      • Nuair a bhíonn seilbh nó úinéiracht i gceist. (Possession or ownership)

      Más le duine rud éigin:

      leabhar + Seán => Leabhar Sheáin.

      cóta + Máire => Cóta Mháire

      carr + Séamas => Carr Shéamais

      ollscoil + Éire => Ollscoil na hÉireann

      • I gcás ainm briathartha, nuair a chuirtear gníomh in iúl. (After the verbal noun, when describing an action, where the verb would end with “ing” in English)

      peil => Ag imirt peile

      an fhuinneog => Ag glanadh na fuinneoige

      an aiste => Ag scríobh na haiste

      an t-úrlár => Ag scuabadh an úrláir

      an bia => Ag ithe an bhia

      an páipéar => Ag léamh an pháipéir

      an t-úll => Ag ithe an úill

      • Nuair a úsáidtear Réamhfhocal Comhshuite, cuirtear an t-ainmfhocal a leanann é sa T.G. (in the case of compound prepositions)

      an oíche => Ar feadh na hoíche

      an domhan => Ar fud an domhain

      an tseachtain => Go ceann seachtaine

      an geimhreadh => I rith an gheimhridh

      an samhradh => Le linn an tsamhraidh

      an balla => In aghaidh an bhalla.

      (ar aghaidh, os coinne, os comhair, ar chúl, taobh thiar, ar feadh, i gcaitheamh, i rith, in imeacht, le linn, ar fud, ar lorg, ar nós, ar son, thar ceann, de cheann, ar tí, de bharr, dá bhrí, de thairbhe, de réir, faoi choinne, le haghaidh, i gcomhair, go ceann, i bhfeighil, i gcionn, i dteannta, i gcoinne, in aghaidh, in éadan, i lár, i láthair, i measc, i ndiaidh, tar éis, in áit, os cionn, os coinne, os comhair, faoi chúram, srl)

      • Nuair a thagann dhá ainmfhocal le chéile, cuirtear an dara ceann sa T.G. (when 2 nouns come together, the second goes into the genitive case; often where you would see “of the” or ‘s in English)

      (caint + máistir) => Caint an mháistir

      (tafann + madra) => Tafann an mhadra

      (eochair + taisceadán) => Eochair an taisceadáin

      (solas + gealach) => Solas na gealaí

      (leath + obair) => tús maith, leath na hoibre

      • Tar éis Réamhfhocail Simplí áirithe (chun, cois, dála, timpeall, trasna), leanann an T.G. (these 5 particular simple prepositions)

      an Ghealtacht => chun na Gaeltachta

      an fharraige => cois na farraige

      an scéal => dála an scéil

      an chathair => timpeall na cathrach

      an tsráid => trasna na sráide

      • An Ginideach Rannaíoch ("partitive") (words describing quantities)

      Ciallaíonn seo go gcuireann focail nó frásaí cosúil le "a lán/an iomad/an tuafás/barraíocht/beagán/beagainín/cuid/dóthain/go leor/méid/mórán/níos mó/níos lú/oiread/roinnt" an t-ainmfhocal a leanann iad sa TG.

    139. avatar image


      There are three types of numbers in Irish though one of them has various forms.

      1. Cardinal numbers

      2. Number of people

      3. Ordinal numbers

      Cardinal numbers are numbers like "One", "Two", "Three" etc. They can be used as adjectives or nouns.

      If used as a noun, they are always preceded by the article "a" so like:

      A haon

      A dó

      A trí

      And so on. The exceptions to this rule are numbers that are divisible by 10 (with the exception of 10 itself) so numbers like 20, 30, 40 where they appear on their own like Fiche (20) or Tríocha (30). When the tens are combined with singular numbers, like let's say 21, they then have the article.

      21 - Fiche a haon

      The numbers 11-19 (Teens) are formed using the affix déag.

      A haon déag (11)

      A dó dhéag (12)

      A trí déag (13)

      A ceathair déag (14)

      A cúig déag (15)

      A sé déag (16)

      A seacht déag (17)

      A hocht déag (18)

      A naoi déag (19)

      Make sure to always have the "déag" lenited (add a 'h') after dó. There is no particular reason why this rule exists except maybe because it's easier to say on your tongue if it's lenited rather than not.

      However, the article "A" is not used in selections. For example,

      Bád nó dhó - One boat or two

      Trí nó ceathair de bháid - Three or four boats

      Náid (0) often appears without the article "A".

      A use with other nouns may only follow with the aid of the preposition de: e.g.: a trí déag de chapaill = 13 of the horses. Without the preposition, you use the adjectival forms of the Cardinal numbers instead of the noun forms which we have talked about here. I'll go over the adjectival forms and the other types of numbers another time.

    140. avatar image


      Thanks so much for these, they're so helpful!

    141. avatar image


      Do you get these from the dsog

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      What the hell is dsog Lizcos2?

    143. avatar image


      I'm going to be talking about the adjectives side of Cardinal Numbers today.

      Here are all the things about them that you must take in.

      They are used in specifying a quantity of things (trí bhád = 3 boats)

      The number 1: There are 3 possibilities for "one boat":

      bád = bád amháin = aon bhád amháin = one boat

      but not : aon bhád: this takes the meaning of "any boat," in questions, or in negativen sentences, "no boat":

      An bhfuil aon bhád agat? = Do you have a boat?, Níl aon charr agam = I don't have a car

      The numbers 2-10 und 12 are sometimes used with quantities of people (except duine), but mostly in their place on uses the special numbers of person: trí fhear = tríúr fear = 3 men

      The noun following 1 is always in the singular and is (after aon) lenited

      e.g. aon bhád amháin = 1 boat

      The noun following 2 (dhá) is always in the singular and is lenited, if possible (2nd declension) in the dual-form* (the dual is equivalent to the dative form)

      e.g.: dhá bhád = 2 boats (singular), dhá mhuic = 2 pigs (muic is the dial of muc), dhá láimh = 2 hands (láimh is the dual of lámh)

      The noun following 3-10 is today mostly in the singular, but it is

      lenited after 3-6 (e.g.: trí bhád = three boats)

      eclipsed after 7-10 (e.g.: seacht mbád = seven boats)

      less commonly, the noun following 3-10 is in the plural, but it is

      not lenited after 3-6 (e.g.: trí bliana = three years )

      (an h-prefix preceding a vowel: e.g.: trí huibhe = 3 eggs )

      eclipsed after 7-10 (e.g.: seacht mbliana = seven years )

      The plural after 3-10 ist always used when:

      counting of years (special plural form for bliain: bliana):

      aon bhliain, dó bhliain, trí bliana, sé bliana, seacht mbliana, etc.

      The gen. noun ceann (= "piece" lit. "head"), plural: cinn

      ceann = 1 piece, dhá cheann = 2 pieces, trí cinn = 3 pieces, seacht gcinn = 7 pieces

      (instead of ceann there are also similar words in this vein)

      units of measurement and the like: e.g.: trí cinn = 3 pieces, trí huaire = 3 hours, three times, trí huibhe = 3 eggs, trí fichid/trí scóir = 3 x 20, trí scilinge = 3 shillings, trí pingine = 3 pence

      With the numbers from 11-19 déag comes after the noun: trí bhád déag = 13 boats

      otherwise they acta as the numbers from 1-10

      déag (-ten) is lenited after a noun with a final vowel sound (in the singular), e.g.: aon chóta dhéag = 11 coats . This isn't the case if the noun is in the plural: trí bliana déag = 13 years

      after even steps of tens or twenties (except deich) nouns are unlenited and always in the singular (originally, this is the genitive plural), e.g.: tríocha bád = 30 boats, caoga ceann = 50 pieces, fiche bliain = 20 years

      with a following adjective:

      an adj. after aon + feminine noun is lenited and is in the singular e.g: aon bhean mhór amháin

      an adj. after aon + masculine noun remains unlenited in the singular e.g: aon fhear mór amháin

      an adj. after dhá till deich + noun is lenited and is in the plural e.g: dhá bhád mhóra, seacht mbád mhóra

      (if one uses a noun in the plural after 3-10, lenition of the adjective follows only then if the noun ends in a slender consonant: e.g. trí capaill mhóra = 3 big horses , otherwise not: trí bróga móra = 3 big shoes )

      with an article

      the singular article an precedes 1, 2, 11, 12 (dhá after an article de-lenited to dá).

      e.g.: an t-aon bhád déag = the 11 boats, an dá bhád = the 2 boats, an dá bhád déag = the 12 boats.

      In the genitive, the t-prefix is omitted on aon with a masc. noun : an aon, preceding femin. nouns, though still na haon; an dá remains unchanged. (after aon one also commonly places the noun in the genitive)

      e.g.: seolta an aon bháid déag = the sails of the eleven boats, leabhar na haon mhná amháin = the book of the one woman, seolta an dá bhád = the sails of the two boats.

      plural-article na precedes 3-10 and 13-19:

      e.g.: na trí bhád = the 3 boats, na ceithre bhád = the 4 boats, na hocht mbád = the 8 boats.

      In the genitive there is eclipsis on the number:

      e.g.: seolta na dtrí bhád = the sails of the 3 boats, stábla na gceithre bho = the stall of the 4 cows

      singular article an preceding even tens (except deich):

      e.g.: an fiche bliain = the 20 years, an caoga bád = the 50 boats.

      céad/míle also in the plural (with the plural article: na) na céadtha / na mílte = hundreds/thousands of... After this, follows the noun, mostly in the plural: na céadtha mná = hundreds of women

      miscellaneous and variants

      ceithre, cúig appear often in lenited form (cheithre, chúig)

      preceding dhá always in instead of i (e.g.: in dhá bhaile = in two towns)

      fiche is a noun, which can be declined (5th declension ):

      genitive fichead, dative fichid, plural fichid (with other numbers, otherwise: fichidí)

      similarly, the other powers of 10 are declined

      instead of fiche/fichid also scór/scóir (after that also nouns in the plural are possible.)

      instead of is fiche, is tríocha etc. of course also agus fiche, agus tríocha

      instead of is fiche ("and 20") then also fichead ("of 20") or ar fhichid ("on 20") are possible and vice versa

      - trí bhád is fiche / agus fiche = 23 boats ("3 boats and 20")

      - trí bhád fichead = 23 boats ("3 boats of 20")

      - trí bhád ar fhichid = 23 boats ("3 boats on 20")

      Instead of e.g. is caoga, is seachtó ("and 50", "and 70") equivalent to caogad, seachtód ("of 50", "of 70") or ar caogaid, ar seachtóid ("on 50", "on 70") etc. are possible (but not as common as with fiche)

      - trí bhád is seachtó = 73 boats ("3 boats and 70")

      - trí bhád seachtód = 73 boats ("3 boats of 70")

      - trí bhád ar seachtóid = 73 boats ("3 boats on 70")

      instead of céad is dhá bhád then dhá bhád is céad/ar chéad (102 boats); despite the rule of thumb that numbers over one hundred have céad leading.

      The twenties or vigesimal system can also be used above 100 : e.g.: sé fichid bád = 120 boats (lit.: "6x20 boats") instead of: céad is fiche bád = 120 boats;

      seacht bhfichid = 140 ("7x20"), cúig fichid = 100, ocht bhfichid = 160, naoi bhfichid = 180, etc.

      instead of dhá cheann then péire = both

      instead of 12 then doiséinne or dosaen ( = dozen):

      e.g.: doiséinne uibheacha = a dozen eggs , in multiples: dhá dhosean uibheacha = two dozen eggs, deich ndosaen uibheacha = 120 eggs .

      daichead (40) is the compact form of dá fhichead ("2x20"),

      instead of that one, also dhá scór (+ noun in the plural) or ceathracha (analog to tríocha = 30)

      instead of caoga or dhá fhichead a deich (50) also leathchéad ("half a hundred")

      e.g.: caoga bád = deich mbád is dá fhichead = leathchéad bád = 50 boats

      equivalent to céad go leith = 150 (lit.: "100 with half ")

      punt (pound) vor déag (also 11-19) always punta

      e.g.: dhá phunta dhéag = 12 pounds

      I am not done with Numbers however. Just realise yourself that this is indeed hard. It takes time to learn how Numbers work in Irish. Numbers in Irish are definitely among the hardest to learn across the different languages so don't feel that they are just hard to you. Believe me, all us Irish learners have been there.

    144. avatar image


      For number of people, these are all the things you must remember:

      numbers of person are used to count people.

      they are nouns (as opposed to the adjectival cardinal numbers).

      there are only ones for from 2-10, as well as a special form for 12

      3-10 are masculine and originally contractions of normal cardinal number and fear = man: trí fhear > tríúr. They are used for women as well (tríúr ban = 3 women ), 2 (beirt) is a feminine noun

      for the numbers 1, 11 and above 13 there are no special numbers of person, i.e. one uses the normal cardinal numbers

      they may occur on their own or in connection with nouns that describe persons:

      e.g.: tríúr = 3 people, tríúr fear = 3 men, tríúr ban = 3 women, tríúr múinteoir = 3 teachers

      Nouns denoting peopls can also be used with adjectival cardinal numbers, but this is less common (tríúr ban = 3 women , less common would be trí bhean)

      the noun duine = person is already included in the noun of person: 3 people = tríúr not *tríúr duine

      a following noun is unlenited after 3-10, but is lenited after beirt,

      - in the genitive plural (older standard variant) e.g. beirt fhear, tríúr ban, ochtar banaltraí

      - in the nominative-singular (but bean is always in the gen. plural: ban) e.g. ochtar banaltra

      a following adjective would then be in the nominative singular, after beirt, in the plural e.g. beirt fhear mhóra, tríúr fear mór

      - in the dative plural, with the preposition de: triúr d'fhir, ochtar de mhná

      expressions like "as a threesome ", "as a foursome ", etc. are formed with the preposition i and the possessive pronoun: Bhí siad ina n-ochtar ann = they were there as a group of eight. (lit.: "were they in-their eight[-man] there "); Rinne muid inár gcúigear é = we did it as a group of five.

      without a following noun, numbers of person can also be used as a substitute for number + ceann when counting inanimate objects: trí cinn = triúr = 3 pieces

      e.g. "Cé mhéad leabhar?" - "Tríúr" (eng.:"How many books ?" - "3 (pieces)")

      with the article: dháréag is delenited to dáréag after the article: an dáréag aspal = the 12 Apostles

      ochtar with article always takes the t-prefix: an t-ochtar, but not in the genitive and dative: ar an ochtar = on the 8 people

      instead of beirt = two also dís is possible, instead of seachtar = seven also mórsheisear (lit. "big six ")

      The word aonar is due to its origin a number of person ("one person "), but is hardly used in that sense (instead of that is means "alone" Tá mé i m'aonar = I am alone (lit.: "I am in my one person "). It is used as the other expressions like "threesome" , so it quasi literally means "onesome"

    145. avatar image


      I know that mo takes a h, i.e I mo thuairim but why does the word after it sometimes take a h.. such as I mo thuairim phearsanta

    146. avatar image



      That's because "tuairim" (Opinion) is a feminine noun in the Irish language and pearsanta is an adjective. Adjectives take a 'h' following feminine nouns. Don't worry about it for JC anyway, you will learn about feminine and masculine nouns more in-depth at LC.

    147. avatar image


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