All Junior Cert Irish posts
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    When to use "h"? Sarah2014

    do you say "dara seachtaine" or "dara sheachtaine" de mhí Mharta? thanks

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      studybuddy15

      I think it is 'dara seachtain de mhí Marta' but wouldn't you be better off not thinking too hard about any of the past exam subjects and just focus on the up coming exams. It might end up putting stress on you and that's the last thing you want right now.

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      Sarah2014

      thank you very much!!

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      SryanBruen

      Would you like to know loads of times when you use 'h' or séimhiú (lenition)? I have no problem in telling you if you want.

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      Sarah2014

      Yes please that would be great thanks

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      SryanBruen

      Times when we aspirate (h) nouns

      1. After the article 'an' (the)

      - When a masculine noun is in the genitive case

      ceann an chapaill - the horse's head

      - When a feminine noun is in its normal form

      D'imigh an bhean - The woman left

      2. In the vocative case, both singular & plural

      A Sheáin, tar anseo! - Seán, come here!

      A bhuachaillí, ná déanaigí sin! - Boys, don't do that!

      3. After the prepositions: ar (on), de (from), do (to), faoi (under), idir (between), mar (as), ó (from), roimh (before), thar (over), trí (through) agus um (about)

      ar Sheán - on Seán

      de Mháire - from Máire

      3. The preposition "gan" (without) aspirates in general use, but not when words begin with 'd', 'f', 's' and 't'

      gan mhoill - without delay

      4. After den (from the), don (to the / for the) and sa (in the)

      Thit sé den chrann - He fell from the tree

      5. After the possessive adjectives mo (my), do (your) agus a (his) (do not aspirate a (hers / her)

      Is í Michelle mo bheanchéile - Michelle is my wife

      Cá bhfuil do chóta? - Where is your coat?

      6. After aon (1), dá (dhá, two) agus céad (first)

      aon fhear amháin - one man

      dhá bhróg - two shoes

      7. After trí (3), ceithre (4), cúig (5) agus sé (6)

      trí bhó - three cows

      ceithre chapall - four horses

      8. After the copula in the past tense and the conditional, ba, ar gur, níor agus nár

      Ba bhád beag é - It was a small boat

      Níor chaillteanas mór é - It wasn't a huge loss

      9. If a noun is the second part of a compound word

      seanfhear - old man

      dea-thoil - good will

      10. If a noun is a proper noun in the genitive

      Scoil Phádraig - Patrick's school

      in aice Bhéal Feirste - beside Belfast

      11. If a noun is the first word of a phrase in the genitive

      scéal mhuintir na hÉireann - the story of the people of Ireland

      12. If the noun is in the genitive after a noun that ends in a slender consonant

      fir cheoil - music men

      Aspirating adjectives

      1. When the adjective describes a feminine noun in its normal form

      D'imigh an ghirseach bheag - The small girl left

      2. When the adjective describes a noun in the genitive singular

      hata an fhir mhóir - the big man's hat

      3. When the adjective describes a noun in the plural, if the noun ends in a slender consonant

      Tá scamaill dhubha sa spear - There are black clouds in the sky

      4. If the numbers 2-19 precede the noun, the adjective following them is aspirated

      dhá chapall bhána - two white horses

      5. After beirt (two people)

      beirt fhear mhóra - two big men

      Aspirating verbs

      1. In the past tense and in the conditional mood

      Chaill sé a mhála inné - He lost his bag yesterday

      Thiocfadh sé dá mb'fhéidir leis - He would come if he could

      2. After the particles ní, níor, ar, nár, cár agus má

      Ní fheicim é - I don't see him

      3. After the relative pronoun in direct clauses

      an fear a dhíolann tithe - the man who sells houses

      4. After cad é a (what), cathain a (when), cé a (who), cén uair a (when), conas a (how), céard a (what), mar a (as) agus nuair a (when)

      Cé a dhéanfaidh é? - Who will do it?

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      Sarah2014

      Thanks so do you always add a h when an is before a word?

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      SryanBruen

      No only

      Masculine in the genitive

      Feminine in the normal

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      Sarah2014

      What's the genitive case sorry

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      SryanBruen

      Clue: You could sometimes give a good guess whether to add the 'h' in or not after 'an'. Here is an example:

      An-maith - doesn't sound right?

      An-mhaith - it does sound right!

      I will talk about the Genitive Case soon! Don't you worry!

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      Sarah2014

      Ok cool thanks so much

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      SryanBruen

      The genitive case is when we say something belongs to something (not really someone or possession) or when saying prepositions with a place etc. Examples of use of the genitive case (from my stories):

      Timpeall na háite - Around the place (see 'áit' (place) spelt differently)

      Fear an bháid - The man of the boat (notice the 'i' and 'h' in bád)

      Teach an fheirmeora - The farmer's house (note: farmer is spelt differently)

      An deireadh seachtaine - The weekend (note: the 'e' in week)

      These are good examples of the genitive case which you will learn in Leaving Cert Irish! You just need to be aware of it at Junior Cert, not learning it, just be aware!

      Bhí an airgead a ghoid - The money was stolen

      Robáil na robálaithe a lán airgid as an mbainc - The robbers robbed a lot of money out of the bank (notice: the different spelling of 'airgead' (money)

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      SryanBruen

      Correction: Bhí an airgead a robáil - The money was stolen

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      Sarah2014

      Thanks so much

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      SryanBruen

      Do you need help with other Irish grammar?

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      Sarah2014

      I don't understand the mo coinnealach I don't know how to spell it. Do you have an an t-adh essay? My teacher isn't that good with essays and the poem an teilifis thanks

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      SryanBruen

      For tenses, use this resource by me! It includes PLENTY OF EXERCISES (and I mean PLENTY!!!) and the Conditional Mood which you need help with. It gives you all the endings, rules etc of every tense.

      attachment Four Tenses; Irish.docx

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      SryanBruen

      (i) Rinne mé staidéar ar an ngearrscéal 'An tÁdh' le Pádraic Ó Conaire i rith mo chúrsa. Is iomaí téama atá le sonrú sa scéal ach roghnaigh mé an t-ádh. Gan dabht mar is léir ón teideal bhí an t-ádh leis an údar sa scéal brónach seo.

      (ii) Bhí triúr cairde, an t-údar, Michilín Liam agus Sean Antaine i bhfolach mar ní raibh aon fhonn oibre orthu. Shocraigh siad ar dhul ag bádóireacht. Shocraigh siad ar dhul amach ar bhád Thoim Bhig i ngan fhios dó. Bhí plean ag an údar. Bhí Tom Beag le dul go Garumna go margadh muc ar an mbád. Ní raibh an triúr ábalta dul mar bhí ar leaid amháin fanacht agus a rá le Tom Beag go raibh dhá mhuc ar an mbád. Bhí díomá ar na buachaillí. Ba mhaith leis an triúr acu dul ach chuir siad ar chrannaibh é. Thóg an t-údar trí thráithnín. Phioc na buachaillí eile tráithnín. Ba é an t-údar Pádraic a roghnaigh an ceann ab fhaide. Mar sin ní raibh sé ábalta dul leis na buachaillí ar an mbád. Bhí díomá an domhain ar Phádraic. Chuaigh na buachaillí eile amach agus d'fhan sé taobh thiar. Bhí Pádraic cráite leis seo. Chuaigh an bád amach san fharraige. Nuair a shorich sé baile fuair sé amach gur bádh gach duine a bhí ar bhád Thoim Bhig. Thuig Pádraic go raibh an t-ádh leis. Choiméad sé tráithnín an áidh ina dhiadh sin.

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      Sarah2014

      Could you possibly translate the an t-adh? Thank you

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      SryanBruen

      Sarah I think you should get the Shortcuts to Success Irish Grammar Guide - it explains everything in English and therefore easy to understand! unlike most grammar books or your school books which are fully written in Irish.

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      Sarah2014

      Perfect thanks a million

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      SryanBruen

      As in the whole sample answer?

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      Sarah2014

      No just the rough outline of it like what description did you use i.e. timpiste or bas?

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      SryanBruen

      I studied the short story ‘The Luck’ by Patrick Ó Conaire during my course. There are many themes evident in the story but I chose the luck. Without a doubt, the title is clear that the luck was with the author in this sad story.

      ^ I chose "luck" but all have you do to do is change "an t-ádh" in the second sentence if you want to change the theme in English. You can still use the "without a doubt" sentence with changing the theme, because it explains the title of the poem.

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      Sarah2014

      Ok thanks so much

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