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    Endocrine System michellemcc98

    can anybody give me a quick summary of the endocrine system? my teacher is pretty sure it will come up and I never really understood it :/

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      D.C. Sean

      The Endocrine Sytem is pretty tedious until you get the hang of it. Unfortunately it is difficult to summarise however, it is basically to do with hormones- which glands they are made in and their functions. For instance you must know about thyroxine and insulin mainly. An example of an answer to a question would be that insulin is made in the Islets of Langerhans (this is the gland in the pancreas, avoid saying that insulin is made in the pancreas as it acts as both an exocrine and endocrine gland). You would also need to know that insulin regulates blood sugar levels and a defiency of it would result in diabetes. A treatment- insulin injections. You may also be asked why it is taken in injection form and not tablet. The answer is that when administered by injection it goes straight into the bloodstream and is not broken down by the stomach which would happen if ingested.

      This is a very basic summary but hopefully I made it a little clearer.

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      my teacher kinda put it in a table for us

      rest in notes

      gland location hormone function

      pituitary Beneath brain Growth hormone Bone elongation

      hypothalamus Base of brain, above pituitary, below thalamus Anti-diuretic hormone Causes water to be reabsorbed in kidneys

      pineal Within brain, near hypothalamus melatonin Controls body rhythms (sleep patterns)

      thyroid On trachea in neck thyroxine Controls metabolism

      Parathyroid(4) In thyroid parathormone Controls release of calcium from bone into plasma

      thymus Top of chest thymosin Matures white blood cells

      adrenals Top of kidneys adrenaline Causes emergency responses(fight/flight)

      Pancreas(islets of langerhans) In abdomen below stomach insulin Reduces blood sugar levels

      Thyroxin defiance

      Under production

      Children -----cretinism

      Adults --------myxodema and goitre

      Corrective measures ---------thyroxine or iodine tablets

      Over production

      Adults and kids ------------- Graves’ disease

      Corrective measures --------surgically removing part of thyroid gland or killing it with radioactive iodine

      Hormone supplements


      Inability to take up insulin results in diabetes

      Symptoms------------high glucose level in blood and urine, weight loss, tiredness

      Treatment-----------regular insulin injections, controlling carbohydrate intake

      Anabolic steroids

      Build up protein therefore muscle, sped up recovery after injury

      Risks ------------------liver and adrenal damage, infertility, impotence, male traits in females

      Illegal in sport and banned in eu

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      thanks for the help everyone! :)

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