All The Junior Cert posts
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    Notes for JC17 JCScenes

    If anybody in Junior Cycle needs any notes on any subject, feel free to ask here. I've done my JC and I would like to help anybody struggling. For my JC, I done English Irish Maths History Geography Business Studies Science French Art Religion and C.S.P.E. Also, everyone can feel free to help each other here too!

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      Hi, could you please send me your Irish, Geography, Business, and French notes please. Thanks in advance

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      if you had any maths or english, that would be great

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      history would be great thnx

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      Could I get the Irish, History, Geography and English notes please? Thanks so much!!

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      i have the worst french and english teachers this year they are only subs but i have them till april if you had any english and french notes that would be great thank you

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      Can I please get maths,English,history,geography,science and French please it would help me so much if I can have the notes and thank you SO much in advance ☺️

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      Hi, could you please send me your religion, history and science notes it would be a great help. Thank you very much 😊

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      Notes on all those subjects world be a great help, Please and Thanks! :)

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      Notes on English Maths and History please

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      Any topic in particular that people are struggling with? Full subjects are quite difficult to help with. Maybe a topic at a time.

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      Could I get the English, Irish, Maths, History, Geography, Business and Science please? Thanks a million :)

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      Would you have any notes for irish for the story? Much appreciated

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      If u have the Irish and Maths and Science notes it Wud be great. I admire u for this I'd do the same sound there send it to me on Facebook if Ye have it. Alex Farrell

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      Is nobody seeing my threads for Irish notes (I know you have Cathal)?

      Need some Irish grammar help?

      Need phrases to use?

      Need sample stories / essays to use?

      Need some tips?

      Need some sample poetry essays?

      Want something translated?

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      @SryanBruen Indeed I have! But the more notes, the better! (I refer to them forum posts every day btw :-))

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      Renitha R

      Business studies please

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      Religion, history and science please, thank you so much☺️

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      Religion and business, please! Thank u so much

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      Right I will start going through each subject one by one. Firstly, English. Now the course has changed but much of this still applies.

      ENGLISH :


      •Allusion : a reference in a poem or story to some character or event in another poem or story.

      • Anticlimax : When the climax of crisis in a story disappoints or fails to deliver an exciting result.

      • Allegory: a story or poem with two levels of meaning, one literal meaning and a second parallel or hidden meaning.

      • Ballad : a poem telling a dramatic story in simple language, involving dialogue and action, often with a chorus or refrain and usually with a tragic outcome.

      • Colloquial : Informal Language close to the vocabulary and style of everyday speech.

      • Couplet : a pair of rhyming lines, usually of equal length, in a poem or play.

      • Elegy : a mournful poem or lament.

      • Fable : a very short story, often involving animal characters whose actions and attitudes resemble those of human characteristics. They usually have a moral lesson.

      •Pastoral : poems

      , stories and plays set in idyllic rural setting often featuring characters from rural life.

      • Satire : a style of writing that aims to make a person or group of people appear ridiculous.

      • Alliteration : a repetition of the initial sounds of several words in a group.

      • Assonance : the repetition of identical or similar vowel sounds that operates like alliteration.

      • Cacophany : an unpleasant combination of sounds.

      • Contrast : used to highlight difference, to create a stronger visual picture, to intensify an image etc.

      • Emotive Language : words or phrases that cause an emotional response in the reader.

      • Euphony : language that is soft and musical to the ear.

      • Metaphor : a comparison with the words 'like' or 'as' left out.

      • Onomatopoeia : when the sound of the word conveys the meaning.

      • Rhythm : the best or pace of the words.

      • Simile : a comparison with the words 'like' or 'as'.

      ** The use of these words can accompany great results. Being able to identify these speech figures and even using them in answers is very important.

      FICTION :

      • I have studied 'Of Mice and Men' by John Steinbeck.

      | CHARACTERS |

      • LENNIE:

      • Simple character with a powerful impact. He is a big man. In contrast to his name.

      "sloping shoulders"..

      "Dragging his feet a little"..

      •He loves to pet soft things. He is blindly devoted to George. He possesses incredible physical strength. He is helpless and defenceless. He is a tragic character as he is doomed from the beggining. He is truly innocent with pure goodness. He is the architect of this own destruction.

      • GEORGE :

      • He is a small man with brains and a quick wit. He is a father figure to Lennie

      "Lennie imitated George.."

      •He is short tempered but loving and devoted.He looks after all Lennie affairs e.g his work card. He tries to steer him out of potential trouble. He needs Lennie as a friend to prevent the threat of loneliness.

      • He is an idealist who shares the same dream as Lennie. He is clever as he kills Lennie humanly. He is heroic as he makes great sacrifices.

      | TITLE : |

      • "The best laid plans of mice and men often go awry" - Robert Burns, a Scottish poet.

      | SETTING : |

      • The Great Depression

      • 1930s California.

      • Economic Depression.

      •Poverty is Rife.

      • Begins with a steam close to the Salinas River, south of Soledad.

      •Moves to a Ranch.

      •Land is thick in vegetation.

      •Isolated, Lonely and ridden with racial segregation.

      •Unflatterating portrayal of women.

      • Ranch house

      • Bunk House

      • Barn

      • Harness Room

      |OPENING : |

      • Sets the tone and atmosphere of the story's location.

      • Introduces the protagonists.

      •California Landscape "Golden foothill slopes.."

      •Descriptive writing

      "Quiet and natural with sycamores..."

      • Peaceful Settinh with Lizards and Herons etc.

      • Lennie and George's Relationship.

      •Theme of friendship.

      • Dreams.

      • Animal imagery > Lennie hands are described as paws.

      • This leads readers to question Lennie future.


      • Lennie is alone inside the barn, stroking a dead puppy. He is afraid that he won't get to tend the rabbits. As Curleys wife enters, he is flustered and edgy. " I done another bad thing "

      • She tells him of her life and how she " coulda been in the movies..". She moves closer and confides in him. She invites him to feel her hair. He holds tightly as he is scared. He covers her mouth as she dies. He flees to hide. George steals the Luger and departs. This provides suspense conflict and tension. This is an anticipated event as her red dress signalled danger.

      | CLOSING : |

      • Lennie is by the deep pool of the Salinas River. From his memory, he created Aunt Clara and a giant Rabbit. Lennie is fearful as George arrives. Lennie asks for the story. He looks across the river as George tells the story. George pulls the Luger and kills Lennie.

      This is foreshadowed.

      • The theme of friendship is powerful and tragic. Their dream is defeated and everything is hopeless.

      • Their companionship contrasts the loneliness. " I got you an' you got me."

      • George is heroic as he puts Lennie out of his misery.

      **This must be lengthened to receive full marks and obviously, adding more notes to this will maximise marks. More notes on themes needed**

      DRAMA :

      • The play I have studied is Romeo and Juliet.

      | CHARACTERS |

      • ROMEO:

      • He is lovesick. He is a moody teenager. He suffers unrequited lone from Rosaline. He leaves himself isolated. Upon seeing Juliet, attitude radically changes. " Did my heart love till now?"

      • He is melodramatic. He uses poetic language when discussing love. As he is banished from Verona, he is "weeping" and "blubbering".

      • He is passionate and acts rashly. He tends to rush headlong into things. His rashness is apparent after meeting Juliet. He hastily arranges his marriage. His passion is violent as it drives him to disaster. He takes his own life for Juliet.

      • He is a tragic figure. He is brought to disaster by his own flaws. He is "fortunes fool!"

      • JULIET :

      • Juliet is dutiful and obedient at the start. She speaks respectfully to her mother.

      • However, she soon rejects her parents plans for her. She is willing to turn her back on her family for love.

      • She has great courage. She possesses great determination to not marry Paris. She is spurred on by her love for Romeo.

      • She is passionate. She is overpowered by the overwhelming strength of her love. Her devotion is absolute. Her passion is dangerous.

      • TYBALT :

      • He is the most hateful and aggressive. He is quick to join the fight in the first scene.

      • He is always seen fighting or threatening violence. He is quick to anger at the sight of Romeo. He promises violence. He sends a letter to challenge Romeo. He is an insulting and fiery character. He kills Mercution and is ultimately, killed by Romeo.

      | Themes : |

      • LOVE :


      • Romeo suffers from unreturned love from Rosaline. This brings him great unhappiness. He is infatuated by Rosaline. This is not genuine love. He quickly forgets Rosaline.


      • Friar Laurence sees love as a way of bringing calm and order to Verona. In fact, Romeo and Juliets lone dies unite the families.


      • The nurse stresses good looks and physical attractiveness. Also, Mercurios language places emphasis on sex etc. This is in contrast to Romeo and Juliets romantic Love.


      • The Capulet family view love as a way of cementing ones place in society. Juliet can be enriched by marrying Paris. His wealth makes him a good match.

      • YOUNG LOVE

      • Romeo and Juliet represent young love.

      • It is hasty, powerful and romantic.

      • This excess of passion leads to their downfall.

      • This purity of love contrasts with other visions of love.

      • Romeos poetic language conveys this love.

      • It is instantaneous and emotionally charged.

      • Ultimately, it is destructive.

      | SCENES : |


      • The ancient grudge between the families establishes the violent backdrop of the play. It is full of action. This is bound to catch attention.

      • This provides background information. It shows a sharp contrast between Benvolio and Tybalt. It also introduces the theme of conflict.

      • ACT 2 SCENE 2

      • The balcony scene coveys the theme of love beautifully.

      • A soliloquy is when a character speaks directly to the audience to reveal their inner thoughts and feelings. It is as if the character is thinking aloud. Romeo does this as he expresses his awe at Juliets beauty. Romeo uses a metaphor as he compares Juliet to the sun.

      • The danger of their lone is stressed.

      • ACT 3 SCENE 3

      • This scene is a turning point in the play. Benvolio again shows himself as a peacemaker.

      • Romeos reluctance to fight shows the power of love to bring about peace.

      • Pride is seen as an important ingredient of the violence in this scene. This scene shows the terrible consequences of conflict.

      • ACT 5 SCENE 3

      • This is the closing scene. Romeo acts impetuously here.

      • The deaths of the two "star-crossed lovers" evokes great sadness.

      • However, the feuding families are finally reconciled.

      • Romeo and Juliet ends in the way the prologue said it would.

      ** more noted needed to maximise marks once again. Also, DO NOT FORGET TO LEARN YOUR QUOTES.

      POETRY :

      • Each school use different poems so mention some poems and I may help with the ones that I studied.


      • Ambigutity : a statement that contains two or more meanings.

      • Personification : this gives human qualities to something inanimate creating a dramatic effect.

      • Pun : a play on words.


      • Be critical!! Learn to seperate facts from opinion!!

      • In advertisements, when celebrities are used it is called Endorsement.

      • Look for persuasive language, exaggeration and distortion of reality.

      • Look for use of superlative e.g biggest, best etc.

      • Look for imperatives e.g buy, taste etc.

      •Alliteration, Assonance etc.

      • Colourse used can be descriptive :

      Red ~ danger, love

      Pink ~ lone, feminism

      Green ~ nature

      Gold ~ Luxury, wealth

      Silver ~ science, luxury

      Yellow ~ joy, energy

      Blue ~ peace, tranquility

      White~ purity, goodness

      Orange ~ happiness

      Black ~ death, formality

      • Contrast, Capital Letters? Font Size, Bold Lettering, Accolades? ***

      • Slogans : memorable short phrases

      • Logos : symbols used to represent the company.

      • Buzz words : inspire positive feelings

      • Caption : a line that identifies the subject or person in a photograph.

      •Learn all about newspapers**

      • Target Audience : this is the particular group of readers, viewers or lidtendera to whom an advertisement is pitched.

      • Niche marketing : targeting a particular group of the market for a product.


      • When reading extracts, Focus on the following components:

      • Language

      • Genre

      • Character

      • Voice, Movement

      • If anyone needs any other advice for English please let me know soon. Other than this, all you can do is practice non stop. Expand your vocabulary by use of Thesaurus or Reading. Best of Luck :)

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      Thank you so much!!

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      Hey, could I please get the irish, maths and history ones, thank you so much

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      Irish story please :)

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