Want to see ALL questions on this topic?

Upgrade to PLUS+ for €35 to see all past questions

You need to have an account to continue

You need to have an account to continue

Maximi65
Biology definitions/books

what is the best revision aid for biology and does anyone have a list pf all the leaving cert biology definitions


22 Comments
smeehan050502
Biology Revise Wise is great but only as a guide and not to be used as your textbook
bridgetown1
There is no 'list' of biology definitions. You can be asked to explain any biological term/word mentioned in the syllabus.
Chlochlo-mc
I have a list of all possible ecology definitions if that helps?
Farah1970
Farah1970
I hate biology....
Georgerezk365
Micro – organisms Autotrophs organisms which can make their own food from simple inorganic substances Photosynthetic a type of nutrition where organisms make their own food using light energy Chemosynthetic a type of nutrition where organisms make their own food using energy from chemical reactions Heterotrophs organisms which cannot make their own food Saprophytes organisms that take in food from dead inorganic matter Parasites organisms that take in food from a live host and cause harm Pathogens micro-organisms that cause disease Antibiotics chemicals produced by some bacteria and fungi that inhibit the growth and reproduction of other bacteria and fungi Mycology study of fungi Hypha tube/filament in a fungus Mycelium made up of a network of fine tubular filaments (hyphae) Chitin fungus have rigid cell walls containing chitin Sporulation process of make spores Aseptic/asepsis the exclusion of micro-organisms Sterile the absence of micro-organisms Osmoregulation the control of water and salt balance in an organism Bacteriophage a virus that infects bacteria AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) a collection of disorders following infection by the HIV. HIV contains RNA Phagocytosis process where large particles are ingulfed by the cell and become incorporates into a vacuole within the cell.
Georgerezk365
scientific method; food; characteristics of life scientific method is a process of investigation where problems are identified, and their explanations are tested out by carrying out experiments biology is the study of living things an organism is a living thing observation an unbiased, accurate report of an event hypothesis an educated guess based on observation experiment designed to test a hypothesis data consists of measurements, observations/info gathered during an experiment replicate a repeat of an experiment principle/law a theory that has shown to be valid against long-term testing theory a hypothesis that has been supported by different experiments variable a factor that may change in an experiment control a comparison used to provide a standard against which the actual experiment can be judged ethics refers to whether things/issues are right or wrong metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions in an organism continuity of life/biogenesis means that all living things arise from other living things of the same type life is defined as the possession of all of the following characteristics: -organised -required nutrition and excretion -capable of responding and reproducing
Georgerezk365
Organisation Means that living things are composed of cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems Nutrition is the way organisms obtain food Excretion is the removal of waste products of metabolism from the body reproduction production of new individuals response is the way in which living things react to changes in their environment or surrounding characteristics of life the common features shared by living organisms biomolecules molecules found in living things are composed of atoms where elements bonded together in different ratio to form biomolecules. organic compounds carbon atoms bonded together make up most of the chemical compounds in living things.
Georgerezk365
Genetics and DNA Species a group of similar organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring Variation within a species in a group of successful interbreeding organisms the individual members show different characteristics Heredity the transmission of traits from parents to offspring Mutation is a spontaneous inheritable change in the structure of the genetic material Mutagens Agents that cause mutations Gene(point)mutations are changes in a single gene Chromosome mutations large changes in the number and the structure of the chromosomes Evolution defined as a change of a population of one species that give rise to one or more new species. Natural selection A mechanism of evolution whereby the best-adapted individuals survive and produce more offspring or inheritable change within a population in response to change in the environment by natural selection over time
Georgerezk365
Gene a part of a chromosome made of DNA and controls a single characteristic Gene expression the process whereby genetic information, encoded in a gene, is transferred to it’s functional product DNA profiling a process of making unique patterns in the non-coding regions of individuals DNA or examining DNA for a pattern or band to compare Genetic screening testing DNA to identify the presence or absence of genes Transcription copying of a sequence of genetic bases from DNA onto mRNA Translation conversion of a sequence of genetic bases on mRNA onto a sequence of Amino Acids. Chromosome Found in the nucleus, made of DNA and proteins and contain genes along their length Locus the position of the gene on the chromosome Homologous chromosome pairs of chromosomes that contain genes for the same characteristics at the same positions on the chromosomes Gametes haploid cells that are capable of fusion Allele different forms of the same gene. They occupy the same position (locus) on homozygous chromosomes. Genotype the genotype is the kind of genes present in the cell Phenotype this is the expression of the gene in the environment. This is how genes affect the appearance of an organism. Progeny refers to the offspring that are produced Heterozygous when 2 alleles for a particular characteristic are the same Homozygous dominant a dominant allele is one that is always expressed in the phenotype. Generally written with a capital letter
Georgerezk365
Homozygous recessive a recessive allele is not expressed in the presence of a dominant allele, but only when both recessive alleles are present. Generally written with a small letter Incomplete dominance the condition in which both alleles in the heterozygous condition are expressed in the phenotype, and an intermediate phenotype results Fertilization fusion of a haploid sperm and an egg to form a diploid zygote Linkage that genes are located of the same chromosome Sex linkage a characteristic is controlled by a gene on an X\Y chromosome Genetic engineering the artificial manipulation/alteration of genes DNA ligase an enzyme that is used to stick DNA molecules from sources firmly together Pedigree a diagram showing the occurrence and appearance of a particular genetic trait from one generation to the next
Georgerezk365
Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that cut DNA at specific places Genetically modifies organisms (GMOs) living things whose DNA has been altered artificially the law of segregation an individual has two genes for a character. These segregate at gamete formation. Only 1 pair of such genes can be carried in a single gamete. At fertilisation, the new organism will have 2 for each trait, one from each parent the law of independent assortment when gametes are formed, each member of a pair of alleles can be inherited with any one from another allele pair
Georgerezk365
Cells Protoplasm is all living parts of a cell Ultrastructure the fine detail of a cell as seen under an electron microscope Chromatin name given to chromosomes when they are not dividing Ribosomes very small organelles made of protein and RNA. Function is to make protein Organelles distinct structures suspended in cytoplasm Prokaryotic cells do not have a nuclear membrane surrounding their DNA Eukaryotic cells have membrane bound organelles and nucleus Tissue a group of similar cells specialised to carry out the same function Tissue culture cells grown on a sterile nutrient medium outside an organism Organ a structure containing different tissues which has a specific function Organ system a group of organs and tissues working together to carry out a specific function Catalyst a substance that speeds up a reaction itself without being used up in the reaction Enzymes defined as biological catalysts, protein in nature. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions in the cell without being used up in the reaction Substrate the substance a n enzyme reacts with Product is formed when an enzyme reacts with a substrate Active site the region of the enzyme that binds with the substrate Denatured enzyme an enzyme which has lost its shape and can no longer carry out its function Bioprocessing use of enzyme-controlled reactions to produce a product
Georgerezk365
Bioreactor a vessel used to carry out enzyme-controlled reactions Batch processing fixed amount of nutrients added at the beginning and emptied at the end of production Immobilised enzymes enzymes that are fixed to each other or to an inert material Phosphorylation addition of phosphate to a molecule Protease an enzyme that digests protein Cell continuity all cells develop from pre-existing cells Chromosome coiled threads of DNA and protein that become visible in the nucleus at cell division Haploid cell a cell which contains one of every chromosome type or pair Diploid cell a cell which contains two of every type of chromosome Homologous pairs consists of 2 chromosomes that each have genes for the same features at the same positions Interphase the phase in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing Mitosis a form of cell division that produces two daughter cells, genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell. Meiosis a form of cell division that produces 4 genetically different daughter cells, each of which has half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell Cancer group of disorders in which certain cells lose their ability to control both the rate and the number of time mitosis takes place
Georgerezk365
Selectively permeable cell membranes allow the passage of some materials but not others Diffusion the movement of substances from an area of high conc. To low conc. It is a passive process Active transport the movement of a substance from low conc. To high conc. Using energy Osmosis the diffusion of water from high conc. To low conc. Across a semi-permeable membrane Hypotonic solution has a lower conc. Of solutes and thus a higher conc. Of water than another solution Hypertonic solution has a higher conc. Of solutes and thus a lower conc. Of water than another solution Isotonic solution has the same conc. Of solutes and water as another solution Turgor/turgor pressure is the presence of the cytoplasm and vacuole against the cell wall
Georgerezk365
Plants Meristem zone of active cell division in a plant Dermal tissue a single layer of cells covering the different parts of the plant e.g. Epidermis Vascular tissue the tissues involved in transport within the plant, xylem and phloem Ground tissue all the other tissues within the plant Cuticle living cells often with a waxy layer covering the outer surface Herbaceous plants do not contain wood/lignin Woody they possess woody tissues Transpiration loss of water vapour from the leaves and other aerial parts of a plant Lenticels openings in the stems of plants that allows gas exchange Stimulus anything that brings about a response in an organism Response the effect the stimulus has on the organism activity. Tropism the growth response of a plants to an environmental stimulus Phototropism growth of plants in response to light Geotropism growth of plants in response to gravity Thigmotropism growth of plants in response to touch Hydrotropism growth of plants in response to water Chemotropism growth of plants in response to chemicals Growth regulators a chemical that controls growth in plants Phytoalexins when a plant is infected by a micro-organism, the plant is able to produce stress proteins Asexual reproduction involves one parent
Georgerezk365
Sexual reproduction involves the union of 2 parents Gametes haploid cells capable of fusion Stamens male parts of the flower Carpals female parts of the flower Pollination the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma of a flower from the same species Self-pollination the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma on the same plant
Georgerezk365
Cross-pollination the transfer of pollen from an anther to a stigma on a different plant of the same species Fertilization union of the male and female gametes to forma diploid zygote Non-endospermic seed has no endosperm when fully formed Endospermic seed contains some endosperm when fully formed Dispersal the transfer of seed/fruit away from the parent plant Dormancy resting period when seeds undergo no growth and have reduced cell activity/metabolism Germination the regrowth of the embryo, after a period of dormancy, if the environmental conditions are suitable Vegetative propagation asexual reproduction in plants Clone a group of cells/organisms that are genetically identical to each other and are produced by mitosis Runners horizontal stems that run, grow above the ground and from which new plants grow Root tuber a swollen, underground root that remains dormant during the winter and from which new plants may grow Bulb modified bud Micro-propagation involves growing large numbers of plants from small pieces of plant tissue Tissue-culture the growth of tissues outside the organism on an artificial medium Leaf venation the way in which veins are arranges in a leaf is called leaf venation
Georgerezk365
Ecology Ecology the study of the relationship of living organisms with one another and with the environment Ecosystem a community of organisms and their abiotic organisms Biosphere part of the earth in which life can occur Habitat place in the environment where an organism lives Population all the members of the same species living in an area Community plants and animals sharing the resources of a habitat Niche the functional role of an organism in an ecosystem Abiotic factors non-living factors Biotic factors living factors Climatic factors refer to weather over a long period of time Edaphic factors aspects of the soil that influences an ecosystem such as pH, soil type, moisture Producers autotrophs that carry out photosynthesis Consumers organisms that take in food from other organisms Primary consumers organisms which feed directly on producers Secondary consumers carnivores that feed on primary consumers Tertiary consumers carnivores that feed on secondary consumers Food chains the pathway along which energy is transferred in an organism Food web 2 or more interlinked food chains Trophic level is a feeding stage/energy level in a food chain Pyramid of numbers based on numbers of organisms at each trophic level in a food chain Nutrient recycling the way in which elements (carbon/nitrogen) are exchanged between the living and non-living components of an ecosystem
Georgerezk365
Nitrogen fixing conversion of nitrogen gas into ammonia, ammonium or nitrate Nitrification the ammonia is converted to N gas. It is carried out by nitrifying bacteria Denitrification conversion of nitrates in nitrogen gas. It is carried out by denitrifying bacteria on the soil Pollution any harmful addition to the environment Pollutants substance that can cause the undesirable change to the environment Conservation the wise management of our natural resources Competition occurs when organisms actively struggle for a resource that is in short supply Intra-specific competition this takes place between members of the same species Contest competition involves an active physical contest between 2 individuals Scramble competition involves all the competing organisms getting some of the resources Adaptations ways in which organisms are specialised either in stricture/behaviour to survive competitions Predation an organism that lives by killing and consuming other living things Parasitism living organisms that feed on another living organism of a different species known as a host, generally causing harm to the host Ectoparasites/exoparasites live on the body of the host Endoparasites live on the inside of the body of the host Symbioses relationship between two organisms of different species that live in close association to the benefit of both organisms
Georgerezk365
Saprophytes lives on dead organisms Quantitative study a study to find out the number of organisms that live in an ecosystem Qualitative study a study to find out the types of organisms that exist in an ecosystem Grazing food chain a sequence of organisms in which one is eaten by the next member in the chain.
Georgerezk365
I hope that those help!
davidihebinike
when u dont have a life lol
Uploading attachment...